Cancer is a class of diseases in which a group of cells growing and multiplying disordered and uncontrollable way in our body, have become progressively worse and damaged other healthy tissues, sometimes spreads to other organs in the body via lymph or blood and results may be in death.
Beside the main compound of anthraquinones, otyher compounds include anthraquinone glycosides, (emodin, frangulin, iso-emodin, aloe-emodin, and chrysophanol), rhein, aloin, malic acid, tannic acid, cascarosides A, B, C, and D, and hydroxy anthracene derivatives (HAD), etc.
Emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone) is an anthraquinone derivative originally isolated from Rheum officinale Baill known in research community for decades to possess anticancer properties. In the study to examine the effects of emodin on P2X7R(The adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP)-gated Ca(2+)-permeable channel P2X7 receptor )-dependent Ca(2+) signaling, extracellular matrix degradation, showed that emodin inhibits human cancer cell invasiveness by specifically antagonizing the P2X7R. Others in the evaluation of natural anthracene-derived compounds as antimitotic agents, showed that anthraquinones possess promising anti-mitotic activity and may have the potential to be lead compounds for the development of a new class of multifaceted natural anticancer/antimitotic agents.
The Side effects
1. Cascara Sagrada can be liver toxic.
2. It may cause Postal hypertension
Cascara sagrada (CS) has been associated with the development of cholestatic hepatitis, complicated by portal hypertension.
3. Fresh cut, dried bark may cause vomiting and diarrhea.
4. It may allergic effect.
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1. Anthraquinone emodin inhibits human cancer cell invasiveness by antagonizing P2X7 receptors.
3. [Toxic hepatitis following consumption of the herbal medicinal product Cascara Sagrada].[Article in Danish]" by Jacobsen C, Semb S, Kromann-Andersen H(PubMed)
4. "Cascara sagrada-induced intrahepatic cholestasis causing portal hypertension: case report and review of herbal hepatotoxicity" by Nadir A, Reddy D, Van Thiel DH.(PubMed)
5. "Occupational respiratory allergic disease induced by Passiflora alata and Rhamnus purshiana" by Giavina-Bianchi PF Jr, Castro FF, Machado ML, Duarte AJ.(PubMed)