A free radical is any atom or molecule that has a single unpaired electron in an outer shell and highly reactive to react with other cell, which in turn, causes oxidative damage to the enzymes, other protein, unsaturated fatty acid, phospho-lipids, DNA and RNA, etc., leading to aging of the organisms, as a result of widespread damage due to set of a chain reaction auto-catalytically after attacking the lipid bilayers of the cell walls.
It contains arbutin, ursolic acid, tannic acid, gallic acid, some essential oil and resin, hydroquinones tannins, phenolic glycosides and flavonoids.
In the evaluation of the antioxidant effect regard to single dose of plant extracts and their concentration in human organism, indicated that Arctostaphylos uva. was found to be less effective when compare to Hypericum perforatum, Potentilla erectra, Ledum palustre, Plantago major, Salvia officinalis > Chamomilla recutita. Other in the study of Modulatory effects of resveratrol, citroflavan-3-ol, and plant-derived extracts, Etoposide-induced oxidative stress was strongly reduced by olive leaf extract and bearberry. Also, The extracts of A. patula and A. viscida from Arctostaphylos plants showed potent inhibition against tyrosinase as it not only inhibited the production of melanin from dopachrome by autoxidation, but exhibited SOD (superoxide dismutase)-like activity and had a moderate absorbance in the UV-B area.
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The Side effect
1. Overdoses may cause gastrointestinal discomfort, including cause nausea, vomiting, etc. and fever, chills, severe back pain, ringing in the ears, etc.
2. The herb may interact with other medicine, including diuretic
3. Do not use the herb in new born, children or if you are pregnant or breast feeding without approval from the related field specialist.
(1) [Antioxidant properties of plant extracts].[Article in Russian] by Bol'shakova IV, Lozovskaia EL, Sapezhinskiĭ II.(PubMed)