Wednesday, 22 January 2014

Herbal Cascara Sagrada and Herpes simplex virus

Cascara sagrada is a species of buckthorn, genus Rhamnus, belonging to the family Rhamnaceae, native to western North America, it's bark has been used in traditional medicine for gastrointestinal support. and it is thought to have a laxative and natural cleansing, etc., effect.
Herpes is defined as a viral disease caused by both Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), type 2 (HSV-2).

The ingredients
Beside the main compound of anthraquinones, otyher compounds include anthraquinone glycosides, (emodin, frangulin, iso-emodin, aloe-emodin, and chrysophanol), rhein, aloin, malic acid, tannic acid, cascarosides A, B, C, and D, and hydroxy anthracene derivatives (HAD), etc.

The benefits
Anthraquinone derivatives such as emodin have recently been found to protect against deposit of  amyloid plaques and tau aggregation-induced cell death. In the study to evaluate the anti viral effects of emodin against HSV infection, emodin showed a positive result in inhibiting the replication of HSV-1 and HSV-2 in cell culture at the concentration of 50 μg/ml with antiviral index of 2.07 and 3.53, respectively as well as enhancing the survival rate of HSV-infected mice ad may be considered as a promising agent in the clinical therapy of HSV infection. Other in the study of the same indicated that emodin also inhibits the yields of HSV-1 but via the suppression of a novel target, UL12.

The Side effects
1. Cascara Sagrada can be liver toxic.
2. It may cause Postal hypertension
Cascara sagrada (CS) has been associated with the development of cholestatic hepatitis, complicated by portal hypertension.
3. Fresh cut, dried bark may cause vomiting and diarrhea.
4. It may allergic effect.
5. Etc.
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(1) The effect of emodin, an anthraquinone derivative extracted from the roots of Rheum tanguticum, against herpes simplex virus in vitro and in vivo by Xiong HR, Luo J, Hou W, Xiao H, Yang ZQ.(PubMed)
(2) Emodin is a novel alkaline nuclease inhibitor that suppresses herpes simplex virus type 1 yields in cell cultures by Hsiang CY, Ho TY.(PubMed)
3. [Toxic hepatitis following consumption of the herbal medicinal product Cascara Sagrada].[Article in Danish]" by Jacobsen C, Semb S, Kromann-Andersen H(PubMed)
4. "Cascara sagrada-induced intrahepatic cholestasis causing portal hypertension: case report and review of herbal hepatotoxicity" by Nadir A, Reddy D, Van Thiel DH.(PubMed)
5. "Occupational respiratory allergic disease induced by Passiflora alata and Rhamnus purshiana" by Giavina-Bianchi PF Jr, Castro FF, Machado ML, Duarte AJ.(PubMed)