Monday, 13 January 2014

Potassium and metabolic syndrome

Dietary Minerals are the group of minerals essential for our body to sustain normal functions and physical health.
In General, potassium is a very essential mineral to the human body for maintaining to build proteins and muscle, break down carbohydrates, maintain normal body growth and normal heart electricity, etc.
Metabolic syndrome
According to the American Academy of Family Physicians, insulin resistance often goes along with other health problems, such as diabetes, high cholesterol and high blood pressure. These problems are all risk factors for heart disease. When a person has many of these problems at the same time, doctors commonly call it “metabolic syndrome.” It is sometimes called “insulin resistance syndrome” or “syndrome X.” Many people who have type 2 diabetes also have metabolic syndrome
Other defined it as a disorder of energy utilization and storage, diagnosed by a co-occurrence of 3 out of five of the following medical conditions: abdominal (central) obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated fasting plasma glucose, high serum triglycerides, and low high-density cholesterol (HDL) levels. The metabolic syndrome increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, particularly heart failure, and diabetes.

The benefits
Lower potassium intake may be associated to increased risk of diabetes. The Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008-2010, The incidence was more prominent in postmenopausal women, but not among men. Diet higher potassium is significantly associated with reduced risk of  Metabolic syndrome in women, as well as insulin resistance (IR). In a cross-sectional study in 10,341 participants aged 40 years or older also supported the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and elderly Chinese with low serum potassium level. Nordic diet containing important potassium sources with intake in potatoes, fruit and berries, vegetables and milk products, is found to decreased diastolic ambulatory BP and mean arterial pressure as well as  metabolic syndrome, may be attributed to higher intake of potassium products.

The Side effects
Overdose of potassium, also known as hyperkalemia may result of symptoms of hypotension, stomach cramps, diarrhea, vomiting, irritability, fatigue, etc., and in some cases, it can be life-threatening due to electrolyte abnormality.

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1. Metabolic syndrome (Wikipedia)
2.  Metabolic syndrome, (American Academy of Family Physicians)
3. Potassium intake and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010 by Lee H, Lee J, Hwang SS, Kim S, Chin HJ, Han JS, Heo NJ.(PubMed)
4. Effects of an isocaloric healthy Nordic diet on ambulatory blood pressure in metabolic syndrome: a randomized SYSDIET sub-study by Brader L , Uusitupa M, Dragsted LO, Hermansen K.(PubMed)
5. Serum potassium level is associated with metabolic syndrome: A population-based study by Sun K, Su T, Li M, Xu B, Xu M, Lu J, Liu J, Bi Y, Ning G.(PubMed)

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