Thursday, 23 January 2014

HerbalCascara Sagrada and RV-induced asthma

Cascara sagrada is a species of buckthorn, genus Rhamnus, belonging to the family Rhamnaceae, native to western North America, it's bark has been used in traditional medicine for gastrointestinal support. and it is thought to have a laxative and natural cleansing, etc., effect.
Rhinoviruses are viral infective agents in humans, associated to the cause of the common cold

The ingredients
Beside the main compound of anthraquinones, otyher compounds include anthraquinone glycosides, (emodin, frangulin, iso-emodin, aloe-emodin, and chrysophanol), rhein, aloin, malic acid, tannic acid, cascarosides A, B, C, and D, and hydroxy anthracene derivatives (HAD), etc.

The effects
Mitoxantrone, a anthraquinone derivative found in Cascara Sagrada may be the next potential agent in treating severe asthma caused the Rhinoviruses. It is known that severe asthma is associated the immune response to infection and inflammation and a family of enzymes involved in cellular functions (PI3K). In the study of the effects of Mitoxantrone allergic mice  infected with RV1B, showed an effective potential in RV-induced asthma by blocking pro-inflammatory pathways regulated by multiple cellular processes of PI3K. The effect of the herb may be more profound as the chemical constituent of emodin showed a significantly anti inflammatory activity with capable of interacting with several major inflammatory molecular targets. The result re-emphasizes its potential therapeutic role in the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

The Side effects
1. Cascara Sagrada can be liver toxic.
2. It may cause Postal hypertension
Cascara sagrada (CS) has been associated with the development of cholestatic hepatitis, complicated by portal hypertension.
3. Fresh cut, dried bark may cause vomiting and diarrhea.
4. It may allergic effect.
5. Etc.

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(1) Targeted abrogation of diverse signal transduction cascades by emodin for the treatment of inflammatory disorders and cancer by Shrimali D, Shanmugam MK, Kumar AP, Zhang J, Tan BK, Ahn KS, Sethi G.(PubMed)
(2) Inhibiting AKT Phosphorylation Employing Non-Cytotoxic Anthraquinones Ameliorates TH2 Mediated Allergic Airways Disease and Rhinovirus Exacerbation by Cesar de Souza Alves C, Collison A, Hatchwell L, Plank M, Morten M, Foster PS, Johnston SL, Fran├ža da Costa C, Vieira de Almeida M, Couto Teixeira H, Paula Ferreira A, Mattes J.(PubMed)