Sunday, 26 January 2014

Herbal Cascara Sagrada (Rhamnus purshiana) and Anti viral effects

Cascara sagrada is a species of buckthorn, genus Rhamnus, belonging to the family Rhamnaceae, native to western North America, it's bark has been used in traditional medicine for gastrointestinal support. and it is thought to have a laxative and natural cleansing, etc.,

The immune system is the set of cells and their activity against antigens or infectious agents that comprises of the body's defense system against diseases. The immune system does a great job of keeping people healthy and preventing infections. Beside foods and nutritional supplements, herbs also play a important role in helping the immune system defend against viruses and bacteria attacks.

The Ingredients
The chemical constituents of Cascara Sagrada include Aloe-emodin, Anthrquinone glycosides (Barbaloin Cascarosides A, B, C and D ChrysaloinFrangul), Chrysophanol, Emodin, Heterodianthrones palmidin A, B, and C, dianthrones, Oxanthrone, Rhein, Tannins, etc.

The benefits
Hot glycerin extracts prepared from some herbal plants, including Cascara Sagrada is found to be effective in exerting their anti viral activities including herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2.  The combined emodin plus Astragalus polysaccharide (APS), showed  a weak but persistent inhibitory effect on HBV replication in vivo, which may function as a supplementary modality in the treatment of hepatitis B infection. In SARS,  Isatis indigotica root extract, five major compounds of I. indigotica root, and seven plant-derived phenolic compounds were tested, only compounds aloe emodin and hesperetin dose-dependently inhibited cleavage activity of the 3CLpro,

The Side effects
1. Cascara Sagrada can be liver toxic.
2. Postal hypertension
Cascara sagrada (CS) has been associated with the development of cholestatic hepatitis, complicated by portal hypertension.
3. Fresh cut, dried bark may cause vomiting and diarrhea.
4. It may cause allergic effect.
5. Etc.

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(1) Emodin regulates glucose utilization by activating AMP-activated protein kinase by Song P, Kim JH, Ghim J, Yoon JH, Lee A, Kwon Y, Hyun H, Moon HY, Choi HS, Berggren PO, Suh PG, Ryu SH.(PubMed)
(2) Promotion of adiponectin multimerization by emodin: a novel AMPK activator with PPARĪ³-agonist activity by Chen Z, Zhang L, Yi J, Yang Z, Zhang Z, Li Z.(PubMed)
(3) Emodin, a natural product, selectively inhibits 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and ameliorates metabolic disorder in diet-induced obese mice by Feng Y, Huang SL, Dou W, Zhang S, Chen JH, Shen Y, Shen JH, Leng Y.(PubMed)