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Tuesday, 28 January 2014

Cascara Sagrada (Rhamnus purshiana) and breast cancer

Cascara sagrada is a species of buckthorn, genus Rhamnus, belonging to the family Rhamnaceae, native to western North America, it's bark has been used in traditional medicine for gastrointestinal support. and it is thought to have a laxative and natural cleansing, etc.,
Breast cancer (malignant breast neoplasm) is a cancer that starts in the tissues of the breast either from the inner lining of milk ducts (Ductal carcinoma) or the lobules (Lobular carcinoma) that supply the ducts with milk. there is also rare cases that breast cancer starts in other areas of the breast. In 2010, over 250,000 new cases of breast cancer were expected to be diagnosed in women in the U.S. alone and the risk of getting invasive breast cancer during life time of a women is 1/8.
The Ingredients
The chemical constituents of Cascara Sagrada include Aloe-emodin, Anthrquinone glycosides (Barbaloin Cascarosides A, B, C and D ChrysaloinFrangul), Chrysophanol, Emodin, Heterodianthrones palmidin A, B, and C, dianthrones, Oxanthrone, Rhein, Tannins, etc.
The benefits
Emodin and Aloe-Emodin, the 2 major components found in Cascara Sagrada, is found to be effective in  inhibiting  breast cancer cell proliferation by downregulating ER α protein levels. Other in the combined study of Curcumin and emodin on tumor cell growth not only provide insight into the mechanism of synergy between curcumin and emodin in breast cancer cells, but also suggest a new and potentially useful approach for breast cancer therapy. Also in the study by the University, Hong Kong, emodin is found to induce growth inhibition and apoptosis in MCF-7 cells through the modulation of the expression of apoptosis-related genes. 
References
(1) Emodin and Aloe-Emodin Suppress Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation through ER α Inhibition, byHuang PH, Huang CY, Chen MC, Lee YT, Yue CH, Wang HY, Lin H.(PubMed)
(2) Synergistic effects of curcumin with emodin against the proliferation and invasion of breast cancer cells through upregulation of miR-34a. by Guo J, Li W, Shi H, Xie X, Li L, Tang H, Wu M, Kong Y, Yang L, Gao J, Liu P, Wei W, Xie X.(PubMed)
(3) Emodin induces cytotoxic effect in human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cell through modulating the expression of apoptosis-related genes by Li WY, Chan RY, Yu PH, Chan SW.(PubMed)