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Saturday, 18 January 2014

Food therapy - Black beans (Phaseolus)

Black bean is a Small roughly ovoid legumes with glossy black shells, genus Phaseolus, belongs to the family Fabaceae and can be bought in most grocery stores all around the year in dried and canned forms. It is believed that black bean was first domesticated growth in South America.

Nutrients and Chemicals constituents
a. Nutrients
1. Carbohydrate
2. Dietary fiber
3. Protein
4. Fat
5. Vitamin A
6. Vitamin B
7. Folate
8. Vitamin C
9. Calcium
10. Magnesium
11. Manganese
12. Phosphorus
13. Molybdenum
14. Iron
10. Etc.
b. Chemicals constituents
The major chemical compounds of black bean include anthocyanin, (-)-epicatechin, delphinidin, petunidin, flavonols  and malvidin.

1. The benefits of Black beans (Phaseolus)  in Colon Cancer
Cancer is a class of diseases in which a group of cells growing and multiplying disordered and uncontrollable way in our body, have become progressively worse and damaged other healthy tissues, sometimes spreads to other organs in the body via lymph or blood and results may be in death.
Colon Cancer is defined as a condition of the abnormal proliferation of cells in the colon.
Through human history. black bean has been used as major sources of food consumption as well as
a food in preventing and treating. in TCM black bean is considered as a sources to enhance liver to produce and regulate the circulation of blood. Flavonoids, Genistein and saponins found in black bean has exert the antioxidant capacity and antiproliferative activity against cancer cell lines as Genistein was related with the activity against mammary cancer cells but flavonols and group B saponins were more related with hepatic and colon cancers. Non-glycosilated flavonols were related with antioxidant capacity. In other study, black bean is found to  reduce azoxymethane-induced colon cancer in rats, Dr. Hangen L and the research team said that total tumor multiplicity was also significantly lower in rats fed the black bean (1.1) and navy bean (1.0) diets than in rats fed the control diet (2.2). The 44-75% reduction in colon carcinogenesis in rats fed beans was attributed to 1) more controlled appetites, leading to significantly less body fat, and 2) much greater concentrations of butyrate in the distal colon. It was concluded that eating black beans and navy beans significantly lowered colon cancer incidence and multiplicity.

References
(1) Differential accumulation of polyphenolics in black bean genotypes grown in four environments.

Marles MA, Balasubramanian P, Bett KE. (PubMed)
(2) Evaluation of the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of extracted saponins and flavonols from germinated black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).
Guajardo-Flores D, Serna-Saldívar SO, Gutiérrez-Uribe JA(PubMed)
(3) Consumption of black beans and navy beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) reduced azoxymethane-induced colon cancer in rats. by Hangen L, Bennink MR.(PubMed)

2. The benefits of Black beans (Phaseolus) as Antioxidants
A free radical is any atom or molecule that has a single unpaired electron in an outer shell and highly reactive to react with other cell, which in turn, causes oxidative damage to the enzymes, other protein, unsaturated fatty acid, phospho-lipids, DNA and RNA, etc., leading to aging of the organisms, as a result of widespread damage due to set of a chain reaction auto-catalytically after attacking the lipid bilayers of the cell walls.
Oxidative damage to human body are considered as a major cause of human diseases and aging in some theories. In the study to compare 4 different types of bean with Phenolic extracts of 4 Vigna species of legumes (mung bean, moth bean, and black and red varieties of adzuki beans)showed that Vigna species of legumes are potential source of antioxidant phenolics, Dr. Marathe SA and the research team in the comparison of antioxidative effects of different types of bean found that even though legumes with dark color seed coat did not always possessed high antioxidant activity (e.g. moth bean, black pea, black gram, lentils), but the ntioxidant activity showed positive correlation (r²>0.95) with phenolic contents, in DPPH·, ABTS·⁺ and FRAP assays, whereas poor correlation (r²=0.297) was observed between Fe²⁺ chelating activity of the legumes and phenolic contents.


References 
(1) Differential accumulation of polyphenolics in black bean genotypes grown in four environments.
Marles MA, Balasubramanian P, Bett KE. (PubMed)
(2) Phenolic antioxidants in some Vigna species of legumes and their distinct inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase activities.


Sreerama YN, Takahashi Y, Yamaki K(PubMed)

(3) Comparative study on antioxidant activity of different varieties of commonly consumed legumes in India. by Marathe SA, Rajalakshmi V, Jamdar SN, Sharma A.(PubMed)

3. The benefits of Black beans (Phaseolus) in Gastric cancer
Stomach cancer or gastric cancer is defined as condition of abnormal growth of the mucus-producing cells of the inside lining of the stomach. Adenocarcinoma is the most common type of stomach cancer.
Anthocyanins, the major chemical compounds of black soybean not only decrease H. pylori-induced ROS enhancement, but also inhibited phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B and Iκβα degradationnd H. pylori-induced inducible nitric oxide synthases and cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA expression and IL-8 production by 45.8%. On the other hand, in the study by Dr, Zou Y, and Dr.  Chang SK. indicated that black soybean extract inhibited AGS cell growth in a dose-dependent manner with an IC(50) of 3.69 mg/m and suggested that black soybean extract could be used as an apoptosis inducer in AGS cells and a natural chemopreventive agent in the treatment of human gastric cancer.

References (1) Differential accumulation of polyphenolics in black bean genotypes grown in four environments.
Marles MA, Balasubramanian P, Bett KE. (PubMed)
(2) Anthocyanins from black soybean inhibit Helicobacter pylori-induced inflammation in human gastric epithelial AGS cells.

Kim JM, Kim KM, Park EH, Seo JH, Song JY, Shin SC, Kang HL, Lee WK, Cho MJ, Rhee KH, Youn HS, Baik SC.(PubMed)
(3) Effect of black soybean extract on the suppression of the proliferation of human AGS gastric cancer cells via the induction of apoptosis. by Zou Y, Chang SK.(PubMed)

4. The benefits of Black beans (Phaseolus) in lipoprotein
Cholesterol is needed for our body to build cell walls, make hormones and vitamin D, and create bile salts that help you digest fat. However too much of it can be dangerous because cholesterol cannot dissolve in your blood. The special particle called lipoprotein moves this waxy, soft substance from place to place. If you have too much low density lipoprotein LDL that is known as bad cholesterol, overtime cholesterol can build up in your arterial walls causing blockage and leading to heart attack and stroke.
Low density lipoprotein in short LDL, is known as bad cholesterol. Most people with uncontrolled diet that is high in saturated fat have high levels of LDL Many studies have demonstrated that the daily intakes of black soybeed foods may have a potential to reduce cardiovascular risk. in the study of the inhibitory effect of black soybeans on low density lipoprotein (LDL) found that because of its total polyphenols contents in its seed coat, black soybeans may be more effective in inhibiting LDL oxidation than yellow soybeans. Others in the study to  investigate the antioxidant activities of the hydrophilic extracts from 9 selected legumes based on copper-induced human LDL oxidation model in vitro, indicated that consuming black beans may have potential in preventing the development of atherosclerosis from the perspective of inhibiting LDL oxidation.

References (1) Differential accumulation of polyphenolics in black bean genotypes grown in four environments.
Marles MA, Balasubramanian P, Bett KE. (PubMed)
(2) Comparative studies on the antioxidant activities of nine common food legumes against copper-induced human low-density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro. by Xu BJ, Yuan SH, Chang SK.(PubMed)
(3) Antioxidant activities of black and yellow soybeans against low density lipoprotein oxidation.

Takahashi R, Ohmori R, Kiyose C, Momiyama Y, Ohsuzu F, Kondo K.(PubMed)

5. The benefits of Black beans (Phaseolus) in Diabetes
Diabetes is defined as a condition caused by insufficient insulin entering the bloodstream to regulate the glucose. It is either caused by cells in pancreas dying off or receptor sites clogged up by fat and cholesterol. In some cases, diabetes is also caused by allergic reactions of cells in the immune system.

Throughout the world and in many cultures, beans and rice are commonly consumed together as a meal, therefore evaluation the glycemic response of bean and rice traditional meals compared to rice alone in adults with type 2 diabetes have become urgent to improve dietary adherence with cultural groups. According to the study by dr. Thompson SV and research team, pinto, dark red kidney and black beans with rice attenuate the glycemic response compared to rice alone. Promotion of traditional foods may provide non-pharmaceutical management of type 2 diabetes, Other study also found that adding 25 % cooked black bean cultivar Negro 8025 (N8025) flour in a diet supplemented  in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, may be recommended to control diabetes, as it showed a significant reduction of glucose (22.8 %), triglycerides (21.9 %), total cholesterol (29.9 %) and LDL (56.1 %) that correlates with a protection of pancreatic ß-cells.

References
(1) Differential accumulation of polyphenolics in black bean genotypes grown in four environments.
Marles MA, Balasubramanian P, Bett KE. (PubMed)
(2) Bean and rice meals reduce postprandial glycemic response in adults with type 2 diabetes: a cross-over study. by Thompson SV, Winham DM, Hutchins AM.(PubMed)
(3) Cooked common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) protect against β-cell damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. by Hernández-Saavedra D, Mendoza-Sánchez M, Hernández-Montiel HL, Guzmán-Maldonado HS, Loarca-Piña GF, Salgado LM, Reynoso-Camacho R(PubMed)

6. The benefits of Black beans (Phaseolus) in Prostatic hyperplasia
As aging progress, the levels of the by-product prolactin of testosterone of men increases, stimulating the production of the enzyme 5-alpha reductase that causes the conversion of testosterone to gihydro-testosterones DHT triggering prostate enlargement and other problems. Therefore in order to prevent the symptoms of enlarged prostate is to naturally impend the conversion of testosterone to DHT. Unfortunately, aging is not the only cause of enlarged prostate.

As a result of prosperity in the emerging world, Prostatic hyperplasia has become a medical condition of which requires urgent attention. Anthocyanin, a major chemical compound found in  pigment in black bean may be a potential food used to treatment for enlarged prostate, as anthocyanin  decrease the volume and suppressing the proliferation of the prostate. But further studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms and actions of anthocyanin, and these studies may lead to the clinical application of anthocyanin in treating BPH. Other study in the investigation the effects of anthocyanin extracted from black soybeans on a rat model of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), Prostate hyperplasia was induced by the administration of testosterone propionate for 4 weeks of that led to prostatic hyperplasia,  anthocyanin administration helped to prevent this change. Apoptotic body counts were significantly higher in groups receiving anthocyanin than in the BPH-induced group (p < 0.05).

References
(1) Differential accumulation of polyphenolics in black bean genotypes grown in four environments.
Marles MA, Balasubramanian P, Bett KE. (PubMed)
(2) Conservative treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia].[Article in Hungarian] by Romics I.(PubMed)
(3) Anthocyanin extracted from black soybean reduces prostate weight and promotes apoptosis in the prostatic hyperplasia-induced rat model. by Jang H, Ha US, Kim SJ, Yoon BI, Han DS, Yuk SM, Kim SW.(PubMed)

7. The benefits of Black beans (Phaseolus) in Oseoporosis
Symptoms of  osteoarthritis is aching pain, stiffness, or difficulty moving the joint (may develop in one or more joints) effect mostly in the elder group as a result of aging. In the study of Consumption of legumes improves certain bone markers in ovariectomized rats, Dr. Park Y. and the research team found consumption of legumes has a beneficial effect on bone through modulation of OPG and RANKL expression in ovariectomized rats, as it compensates for an estrogen-deficiency by preventing bone loss induced by ovarian hormone deficiency.

References
(1) Differential accumulation of polyphenolics in black bean genotypes grown in four environments.
Marles MA, Balasubramanian P, Bett KE. (PubMed)
92) ffect of dietary legumes on bone-specific gene expression in ovariectomized rats.
Park Y, Moon HJ, Paik DJ, Kim DY.(PubMed)

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The Side effect
1. Purines
Black beans contain purines, excessive intake of these substances can cause the accumulation of uric acid, leading to"gout" and kidney stones.
2. Etc.