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Thursday, 23 January 2014

Herbal Anise

Anise is a flowering plant ofthe species of Pimpinella anisum, genus Pimpinella, belonging to the family Apiaceae native to to Egypt and the Mediterranean region. The popular herb has been used in traditional herbal medicine as fragrance in soaps, oils, and mouth fresheners and stomachic, anti-septic, anti-spasmodic, carminative, digestive, expectorant, stimulant and tonic agent to treat head-lice and mites, increase blood pressure, prevent formation of gas in the gastrointestinal tract and menstrual cramps, etc.

Ingredients
Beside the main ingredient Anethole, it also contains, D-pinene, I-phellandrene, Alpha-terpineol, Safrol, Methyl chavicol, Resin, Shikimic acid, etc.

1. Herbal Anise  and Menstrual Cramps and pain in dysmenorrhea
Dysmenorrhea (painful menstruation) is defined as a condition of severe uterine pain during 
menstruation. Some women may experience periodic pains during or prior to, or after menstrual periods in the lower abdomen as resulting of over production of certain hormones in the prostaglandins family. In traditional Chinese medicine, dysmenorrhea is defined as a pain in the lower abdomen, appearing with menstrual cycle that can spread over to the whole abdomen and lumbosacral region, depending to diagnosis.
The benefits
Anise contains certain chemical compounds in relieving the cramps and pain of primary dysmenorrhea, due to immature of the reproductive organs of young girls, according to the study of herbal drug group  given 500 mg of highly purified saffron, celery seed, and anise (SCA) extracts three times a day for three days. Other in the study of Herbal combination of Women were taken either mefenamic acid, an herbal combination of saffron/celery seed extract in combination with either anise or fennel from the onset of bleeding or pain for three days each cycle and followed for two to three cycles found that women taking the SCA herbal combination had a decrease in pain intensity and duration as did those in the mefenamic acid group  and both had statistically significant reductions in pain scores and pain duration compared with the women in the placebo group.

References
1. "[Apparent life-threatening event in infants: think about star anise intoxication!].[Article in French] by Perret C, Tabin R, Marcoz JP, Llor J, Cheseaux JJ.,  (PubMed)
2. Aniseed-induced nocturnal tongue angioedema` by Gázquez García V, Gaig Jané P, Bartolomé Zavala B., (PubMed)
3. Herbal combination for primary dysmenorrhea  by Tori Hudson, ND
4.  The herb possess potent CNS depressant action and anxiolytic effect
4. The effect of an Iranian herbal drug on primary dysmenorrhea: a clinical controlled trial.

Nahid K, Fariborz M, Ataolah G, Solokian S.(PubMed)

2. Star anise (Illicium verum) and Central nervous system activity
Ba Jiao Hui Xiang also known Chinese Star Anise is a spice which has been used in traditional Chinese cooking for thousand of years from a small evergreen tree, native in southwest China. The acrid and warm herb has been used in TCM an Antibiotic agent and to treat hernia, chronic lower back pain, vomiting due to coldness in stomach, pain and coldness in stomach. etc. as it disperses cold moves qi and calms pain by enhancing the functions of liver, kidney, spleen, stomach channels.
Central nervous system include is the part of the nervous system of the brain and spinal cord with function of integrates information it receives from for the entire nervous system, and control all the workings of your body.

Ingredients
Beside the main ingredient Anethole, it also contains, D-pinene, I-phellandrene, Alpha-terpineol, Safrol, Methyl chavicol, Resin, Shikimic acid, etc.

The benefits
Many studies have reports toxicity of Anise in 2 000 mg/kg as toxicological dose. In the study of 1/10 of the toxicological dose taken, the extracts of I. verum possess potent CNS depressant action and anxiolytic effect without interfering with motor coordination. Other in the study of macranthol, a triphenyl lignan isolated from Illicium dunnianum, indicated that macranthol produced antidepressant-like effect, which may be mediated by serotonergic and neuroendocrine system. Unfortunately, certain components have been found to decreased the locomotion enhanced by methamphetamine and demonstrated the analgesia on acetic acid-induced writhing and tail pressure pain at doses dependent manner.

References
(1) Central nervous system activity of Illicium verum fruit extracts by Chouksey D, Upmanyu N, Pawar RS.(PubMed)
(2) Antidepressant-like effect of macranthol isolated from Illicium dunnianum tutch in mice by Li J, Geng D, Xu J, Weng LJ, Liu Q, Yi LT.(PubMed)
(3) Neurotropic components from star anise (Illicium verum Hook. fil.) by Nakamura T, Okuyama E, Yamazaki M.(PubMed)
(4) "[Apparent life-threatening event in infants: think about star anise intoxication!].[Article in French] by Perret C, Tabin R, Marcoz JP, Llor J, Cheseaux JJ.,  (PubMed)

3. Herbal Anise and Breast cancer
Breast cancer (malignant breast neoplasm) is a cancer that starts in the tissues of the breast either from the inner lining of milk ducts (Ductal carcinoma) or the lobules (Lobular carcinoma) that supply the ducts with milk. there is also rare cases that breast cancer starts in other areas of the breast. In 2010, over 250,000 new cases of breast cancer were expected to be diagnosed in women in the U.S. alone and the risk of getting invasive breast cancer during life time of a women is 1/8.

The benefits 
Genetic mutation of DNA play key roles in the development of human breast cancers. (NF-kappaB), the a protein responsible for cytokine production and cell survival, has been implicated in oncogenesis of breast cancers and is known to be associated with resistance to anticancer agents and apoptosis, there fore, Blocking NF-kappaB signaling may represent a therapeutic strategy in breast cancer therapy. epoxypseudoisoeugenol-2-methylbutyrate (EPB), a component of Anise, inhibited the proliferation of both MCF-7 and BT-549 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. EPB induced cell cycle arrest in G(1)/G(0) phase and apoptosis in both MCF-7 and BT 549 cells. Other in the study of aqueous extractsof Pimpinella anisum, indicated that extracts studied at a concentration range 10-100 microg/mL stimulate osteoblastic cell differentiation and exhibit antiestrogenic effect on breast cancer cells without proliferative effects on cervical adenocarcinoma cells.

References
(4) "[Apparent life-threatening event in infants: think about star anise intoxication!].[Article in French] by Perret C, Tabin R, Marcoz JP, Llor J, Cheseaux JJ.,  (PubMed)
(2)  Inhibition of NF-kappaB-mediated transcription and induction of apoptosis in human breast cancer cells by epoxypseudoisoeugenol-2-methyl butyrate by Ma G, Tabanca N, Husnu Can Baser K, Kirimer N, Pasco DS, Khan IA, Khan SI.(PubMed)
(3)Greek plant extracts exhibit selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM)-like properties by Kassi E, Papoutsi Z, Fokialakis N, Messari I, Mitakou S, Moutsatsou P.(PubMed)

4. Herbal Anise and Constipation
Constipation is a condition of bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass. Statistic showed that constipation most often are women, adults ages 65 and older.

The benefits 
In the study of a phytotherapic compound containing Pimpinella anisum L., Foeniculum vulgare Miller, Sambucus nigra L., and Cassia augustifoli, is found to be laxative efficacy and a safe alternative option for the treatment of constipation.

References
(4) "[Apparent life-threatening event in infants: think about star anise intoxication!].[Article in French] by Perret C, Tabin R, Marcoz JP, Llor J, Cheseaux JJ.,  (PubMed) (2) Randomized clinical trial of a phytotherapic compound containing Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, Sambucus nigra, and Cassia augustifolia for chronic constipation by Picon PD, Picon RV, Costa AF, Sander GB, Amaral KM, Aboy AL, Henriques AT.(PubMed)

5. Herbal Anise and anti-viral effects
Anti-viral effects is an act of certain substances to cause the destruction of an virus.

The benefits 
In three antiviral and immunostimulating substances (LC1, LC2 and LC3) Extract of seeds of Pimpinella anisum, lignin-carbohydrate complexes (LCs) showed antiviral activities against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and -2), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and measles virus. LCs were also found to interfere with virus adsorption to the host cell surface and directly inactivate viruses. Furthermore, they enhanced nitric oxide (NO) production by inducing iNOS mRNA and protein expression in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. Other in the study showed essential oils of herbal Anise exhibited high levels of antiviral activity against aciclovir-sensitive HSV strain KOS and aciclovir-resistant clinical HSV isolates as well as aciclovir-resistant strain Angelotti.
 
References
(1) "[Apparent life-threatening event in infants: think about star anise intoxication!].[Article in French] by Perret C, Tabin R, Marcoz JP, Llor J, Cheseaux JJ.,  (PubMed)
(2) Antiviral and immunostimulating effects of lignin-carbohydrate-protein complexes from Pimpinella anisum. by Lee JB, Yamagishi C, Hayashi K, Hayashi T.(PubMed)
(3)Efficacy of anise oil, dwarf-pine oil and chamomile oil against thymidine-kinase-positive and thymidine-kinase-negative herpesviruses by Koch C, Reichling J, Kehm R, Sharaf MM, Zentgraf H, Schneele J, Schnitzler P.(PubMed)

6. Herbal Anise and Tongue squamous carcinoma
Tongue cancers is defined as an abnormal cell growth in the tongue.

The benefits
Safrole, a chemical component found in anise, induced apoptosis in human tongue squamous carcinoma SCC-4 cells and the The induction of apoptosis is involved in mitochondria- and caspase-dependent signal pathways. Aloe-emodin one of anthraquinones, found in aniseed, has been shown to have anticancer activity in different kinds of human cancer cell lines. In tough cancers, it induced apoptosis in the SCC-4 cells through the Fas/death-receptor, mitochondria and caspase cascade and may be considered as a potent agent in treating the disease.

References
(1) "[Apparent life-threatening event in infants: think about star anise intoxication!].[Article in French] by Perret C, Tabin R, Marcoz JP, Llor J, Cheseaux JJ.,  (PubMed)

(2) Safrole induces cell death in human tongue squamous cancer SCC-4 cells through mitochondria-dependent caspase activation cascade apoptotic signaling pathways by Yu FS, Huang AC, Yang JS, Yu CS, Lu CC, Chiang JH, Chiu CF, Chung JG. (PubMed)
(3) Aloe-emodin induces cell death through S-phase arrest and caspase-dependent pathways in human tongue squamous cancer SCC-4 cells by Chiu TH, Lai WW, Hsia TC, Yang JS, Lai TY, Wu PP, Ma CY, Yeh CC, Ho CC, Lu HF, Wood WG, Chung JG.(PubMed)


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7. Herbal Anise and Antifungal activity
Anise is a flowering plant ofthe species of Pimpinella anisum, genus Pimpinella, belonging to the family Apiaceae native to to Egypt and the Mediterranean region. The popular herb has been used in traditional herbal medicine as fragrance in soaps, oils, and mouth fresheners and stomachic, anti-septic, anti-spasmodic, carminative, digestive, expectorant, stimulant and tonic agent to treat head-lice and mites, increase blood pressure, prevent formation of gas in the gastrointestinal tract and menstrual cramps, etc.
Candida albicans is a member of a large group of organism whose cells contain complex structures enclosed within the membranes, including yeast and mold that live among the gut flora in the human mouth and gastrointestinal tract. In fact, under normal circumstances, Candida albicans that does cause harmful effects, but overgrowth results in candidiasis.

The Benefits
P-anisaldehyde (1), o-anisaldehyde (2)  found in anise is found to process the anti fungal activity against Candida, including azole-resistant strains, advocating further investigation for clinical applications in the treatment of fungal infections. In other study, anise fruits Pimpinella anisum L. (Apiaceae) extract showed antimycotic activity against Candida albicans and inhibited the growth of dermatophyte species (Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis and M. gypseum). Anise essential oil also  exhibited stronger antifungal activities against yeasts and dermatophytes with MIC values between 0.10 and 1.56%.

References
(1) "[Apparent life-threatening event in infants: think about star anise intoxication!].[Article in French] by Perret C, Tabin R, Marcoz JP, Llor J, Cheseaux JJ.,  (PubMed)
(2) Interesting anticandidal effects of anisic aldehydes on growth and proton-pumping-ATPase-targeted activity by Shreaz S, Bhatia R, Khan N, Ahmad SI, Muralidhar S, Basir SF, Manzoor N, Khan LA.(PubMed)
(3) Antifungal activity of fluid extract and essential oil from anise fruits (Pimpinella anisum L., Apiaceae) by Kosalec I, Pepeljnjak S, Kustrak D.(PubMed)


The Side Effects 1. If you have high blood pressure or pregnant please consult with your doctor or related field specialist before applying.
2. Star Anise is toxic.
3. Skin Irritation
4. Allergic reaction such as mouth and lip inflammation.
5. Etc.