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Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are medical condition mostly caused by work related occupations and working environment, affecting patients’ muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments and nerves and developing over time. A community sample of 73 females and 32 males aged 85 and over underwent a standardised examination at home. Musculoskeletal pain was reported by 57% of those interviewed. A major restriction of joint movement range was frequent in the shoulder but uncommon in other joints(1).
Types of Musculo-Skeletal disorders in elder(2)
3. Rheumatoid Arthritis
4. Polymalagia Arthritis
5. Cervical myleopathy and spinal canal stenosis
7. Low back pain
Osteoarthritis (OA), a form of arthritis, is defined as a condition of as a result of aging causes of wear and tear on a joint, affecting over 25 million people in the United States in alone. University of Porto Medical School indicated that one must understand the differences in prevalence and incidence estimates of osteoarthritis (OA), according to case definition, in knee, hip and hand joints(3).
The characteristics of osteoarthritis are aching pain(5), stiffness(6), or difficulty of moving the joint or joints(7). The pain usually gets worse in change of weather, at night and in the advanced diseases, the pain can occur even at rest(8). Today management of osteoarthritis (OA) focuses on pain relief and improved physical function through pharmacological, non pharmacological, and surgical treatments(4).
1. Epigallocatechin including catechins, found abundantly in green tea, St John wort, black Tea, carob flour, Fuji apples, etc. is a phytochemical of Flavan-3-ols, in the group of Flavonoids (polyphenols)
EGCG has shown to slow the progression of OA and relieve OA-associated pain in a mouse model study of research team lead by Dr. Daniel J Leong(201).
Catechins might be useful therapeutically as an anti-inflammatory modulator of dental pulpal inflammation(203), through up-regulated expressions of IL-8 in fighting against infection or PGE(2) in response to infection or inflammation(202).
b. Antiviral activities
(-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) and green tea extract (GTE) inhibited the cytopathic effect of coxsackie B3 virus, but did not inhibit the cytopathic effects of HSV-1, HSV-2, influenza A or influenza B viruses(203(204).
Polyphenolic components extracted from green tea leaves, exhibit antioxidative effects against free radical initiated and peroxidation of human low density lipoprotein(205)(206).
2. Catechin is phytochemical of Flavan-3-ols, in the group of Flavonoids (polyphenols), found abundantly in white tea, green tea, black tea, grapes, wine, apple juice, cocoa, lentils, etc.
a. Body-weight regulation
Green tea-caffeine showed to exert its hypolipidemic and antiobesogenic effects through regulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in the effect on lipid metabolism and obesity(207). The Ewha Womans University study also support the above result in weight reduction but through genes expression(208). It mixture improves weight maintenance, through thermogenesis, fat oxidation, and sparing fat free mass(209).
b. Antioxidant activity(210)(211)
Polyphenolic compounds (included catechins) in the berries of edible honeysuckle, including proanthocyanidins, catechins, exhibit the beneficial anti-adherence and chemo-protective activities in against a number of chronic conditions, e.g., cancer, diabetes mellitus, tumour growth or cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, according to the study by Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra(212).
c. Anti-inflammatory effect
Polymeric tannins and monomeric flavonoids, such as catechin and epicatechin found in green tea showed to exhibit anti inflammatory effects(213) through interfere with immunobiochemical pathways that are highly relevant for immunosurveillance and competing virus infections(213).
3. Theaflavin is phytochemicals of Flavan-3-ols, in the group of Flavonoids (polyphenols) found abundantly in black tea.
a. Antioxidant capacities
Theaflavin-3′-gallate (TF(2)B), a derivative of theaflavin exhibits positive antioxidant capacities on singlet oxygen(214), hydrogen peroxide(215), hydroxyl radical(216), and the hydroxyl radical induced DNA damage in vitro(214).
b. Antimicrobial activities
Plant polyphenols, including Theaflavins have exhibited anti microbial activity against several food-borne pathogenic bacteria(217) and growed in Mueller-Hinton medium(218).In the evaluation of the antimicrobial activities of seven green tea catechins and four black tea theaflavins, including (-)-gallocatechin-3-gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, (-)-catechin-3-gallate, (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate, theaflavin-3, 3′-digallate, theaflavin-3′-gallate, and theaflavin-3-gallate exhibit antimicrobial activities, better than medicinal antibiotics, such as tetracycline or vancomycin, at comparable concentrations(218).
c. Anti inflammation
The major polyphenolic compounds in black tea leaves are theaflavins strongly inhibited TPA-induced edema of mouse ears, through its anti inflammatory activity(219).
4. Myricetin is a flavonol, belong to the flavonoid in Flavonoids (polyphenols), found in many grapes, berries, fruits, vegetables, herbs, as well as other plants. It has been used as antioxidant to lower cholesterol, treat certain types of cancer, etc.
a. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activity
Extracted from plants containing phenolic compound, including flavonoid-galloyl glycoside [myricetin 3-O-(2',3'4'-tri-O-galloyl)-α-l-rhamnopyranoside] exhibited high antioxidant activity(220)(221) and cytotoxic activity(222) against Hep G2 and hepatocellular carcinoma(220).
b. Antitumour and anti-inflammatory activities
On mammary tumour cells LM2, myricetin may be a promising agent in the treatment of murine breast cancer by immunomodulatory and antiproliferative activities due to its inhibitory activity to the release of NO(223). According to the study by East China Normal University, the phytochemical Myricetin also consist anti obesity and anti anti inflammatory activity(224)
5. Cyanidin is an anthocyanins (flavonals), in the group of Flavonoids (polyphenols), found abundantly in red apple and pear, bilberry, blackberry, blueberry, cherry, cranberry, peach, plum, hawthorn, etc.
In menopausal women, intake antioxidants has shown to reduce the level of OS. Blackberries (BBs) containing mainly cyanidin 3-O-β-d-glucoside (C3G) exhibit its antioxidant effect in preventing bone loss in rat model(225). According to the joint study by Wonkwang University, Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) is one of the major components of anthocyanin, a water-soluble phytochemical, may be a potential antioxidant for prevention of bone-related diseases, such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and periodontitis(226)
b. Anti-inflammatory Effects
According to Kyung Hee University, cyanidin-3-O-beta-D-glycoside express potent anti-inflammatory effects by regulating NF-kappaB pathway(228). Its polyphenolic-enriched red raspberry extract, containing Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) one of the major component of anthocyanin decreases in the rate of degradation of both proteoglycan and type II collagen as well as inhibition of inflammation, pannus formation, cartilage damage, and bone resorption(227).
Cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside (Cy-3-g)-rich foods inhibited the onset of obesity, partly related to the activation of skeletal muscle lipoprotein lipase(LPL), and inhibition of LPL in adipose tissue(229)(230).
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(1) Prevalence of rheumatic symptoms, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and gout in Shanghai, China: a COPCORD study by Dai SM1, Han XH, Zhao DB, Shi YQ, Liu Y, Meng JM.(PubMed)
(2) Musculoskeletal Disorders in the Elderly by Ramon Gheno, Juan M. Cepparo, Cristina E. Rosca,1 and Anne Cotten(PMC)
(3) The effect of osteoarthritis definition on prevalence and incidence estimates: a systematic review by Pereira D1, Peleteiro B, Araújo J, Branco J, Santos RA, Ramos E.(PubMed)
(4) Effect of therapeutic aquatic exercise on symptoms and function associated with lower limb osteoarthritis: systematic review with meta-analysis by Waller B1, Ogonowska-Slodownik A2, Vitor M3, Lambeck J4, Daly D5, Kujala UM6, Heinonen A7.(PubMed)
(5) Effects of therapeutic ultrasound on pain, physical functions and safety outcomes in patients with kneeosteoarthritis: A systematic review and meta-analysis by Zhang C1, Xie Y2, Luo X3, Ji Q3, Lu C3, He C4, Wang P3.(PubMed)
(6) Oral intake of purple passion fruit peel extract reduces pain and stiffness and improves physical function in adult patients with knee osteoarthritis by Farid R1, Rezaieyazdi Z, Mirfeizi Z, Hatef MR, Mirheidari M, Mansouri H, Esmaelli H, Bentley G, Lu Y, Foo Y, Watson RR.(PubMed)
(7) Functional ability, mobility, and pain before and after knee replacement in patients aged 75 and older: a cross-sectional study by Limnell K1, Jämsen E, Huhtala H, Jäntti P, Puolakka T, Jylhä M.(PubMed)
(8) The symptoms of OA and the genesis of pain by David J. Hunter, MBBS PhD,1,2 Jason J. McDougall, BSc PhD,3 and Francis J. Keefe4(PubMed)
(201) Green tea polyphenol treatment is chondroprotective, anti-inflammatory and palliative in a mouse posttraumatic osteoarthritis model by Daniel J Leong, Marwa Choudhury, Regina Hanstein, David M Hirsh, Sun Jin Kim, Robert J Majeska, Mitchell B Schaffler, John A Hardin, David C Spray, Mary B Goldring, Neil J Cobelli, and Hui B Sun(PMC)
(202) Tea catechins reduce inflammatory reactions via mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in toll-like receptor 2 ligand-stimulated dental pulp cells by Hirao K1, Yumoto H, Nakanishi T, Mukai K, Takahashi K, Takegawa D, Matsuo T.(PubMed)
(203) Green Tea Catechins and Cardiovascular Health: An Update by Pon Velayutham, Anandh Babu, and Dongmin Liu(PubMed)
(203) [The inhibitory effects of catechin derivatives on the activities of human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase and DNA polymerases].[Article in Chinese] by Tao P1.(PubMed)
(204) Differential inhibitory effects of some catechin derivatives on the activities of human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase and cellular deoxyribonucleic and ribonucleic acid polymerases. by Nakane H1, Ono K.(PubMed)
(205) Antioxidative effects of green tea polyphenols on free radical initiated and photosensitized peroxidation of human low density lipoprotein. by Liu Z1, Ma LP, Zhou B, Yang L, Liu ZL.(PubMed)
(206) Antioxidant effects of green tea polyphenols on free radical initiated peroxidation of rat liver microsomes. byCai YJ1, Ma LP, Hou LF, Zhou B, Yang L, Liu ZL.(PubMed)
(207) The effect of bioactive compounds in tea on lipid metabolism and obesity through regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors by Lee SJ1, Jia Y.(PubMed)
(208) Green tea (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate reduces body weight with regulation of multiple genes expression in adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. by Lee MS1, Kim CT, Kim Y.(PubMed)
(209) Green tea catechins, caffeine and body-weight regulation by Westerterp-Plantenga MS1.(PubMed)
(210) Total polyphenols, catechin profiles and antioxidant activity of tea products from purple leaf coloured tea cultivars. byKerio LC1, Wachira FN, Wanyoko JK, Rotich MK.(PubMed)
(211) Effects of quercetin and catechin on hepatic glutathione-S transferase (GST), NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), and antioxidant enzyme activity levels in rats. by Wiegand H1, Boesch-Saadatmandi C, Regos I, Treutter D, Wolffram S, Rimbach G.(PubMed)
(212) Phenolic profile of edible honeysuckle berries (genus lonicera) and their biological effects by Jurikova T1, Rop O, Mlcek J, Sochor J, Balla S, Szekeres L, Hegedusova A, Hubalek J, Adam V, Kizek R.(PubMed)
(213) Bioactivites of two common polyphenolic compounds: Verbascoside and catechin by Sipahi H1,2, Gostner JM3, Becker K2, Charehsaz M1, Kirmizibekmez H4, Schennach H5, Aydin A1, Fuchs D2.(PubMed)
(214) Evaluation of the antioxidant effects of four main theaflavin derivatives through chemiluminescence and DNA damage analyses by Yuan-yuan Wu,1,2 Wei Li,1,3 Yi Xu,1,2 En-hui Jin,1,2 and You-ying Tu(PMC)
(215) Theaflavin-3-gallate and theaflavin-3'-gallate, polyphenols in black tea with prooxidant properties by Babich H1, Gottesman RT, Liebling EJ, Schuck AG.(PubMed)
(216) Radical-scavenging abilities and antioxidant properties of theaflavins and their gallate esters in H2O2-mediated oxidative damage system in the HPF-1 cells by Yang Z1, Jie G, Dong F, Xu Y, Watanabe N, Tu Y.(PubMed)
(217) Antimicrobial activity of 10 different plant polyphenols against bacteria causing food-borne disease by Taguri T1, Tanaka T, Kouno I.(PubMed)
(218) Antibacterial spectrum of plant polyphenols and extracts depending upon hydroxyphenyl structure by Taguri T1, Tanaka T, Kouno I.(PubMed)
(219) Antimicrobial activities of tea catechins and theaflavins and tea extracts against Bacillus cereus by Friedman M1, Henika PR, Levin CE, Mandrell RE, Kozukue N.(PubMed)
(220) Antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of polyphenolic compounds isolated from the leaves of Leucenia leucocephala by Haggag EG1, Kamal AM, Abdelhady MI, El-Sayed MM, El-Wakil EA, Abd-El-Hamed SS.(PubMed)
(221) Preformulation studies of myricetin: a natural antioxidant flavonoid by Yao Y1, Lin G1, Xie Y1, Ma P2, Li G3, Meng Q4, Wu T3.(PubMed)
(222) Chemical components from the leaves of Ardisia insularis and their cytotoxic activity by Van NT1, Vien TA, Van Kiem P, Van Minh C, Nhiem NX, Long PQ, Anh LT, Kim N, Park S, Kim SH.(PubMed)
(223) Isolated flavonoids against mammary tumour cells LM2 by Carli CB1, de Matos DC, Lopes FC, Maia DC, Dias MB, Sannomiya M, Rodrigues CM, Andreo MA, Vilegas W, Colombo LL, Carlos IZ.(PubMed)
(224) Myricetin suppresses differentiation of 3 T3-L1 preadipocytes and enhances lipolysis in adipocytes. by Wang Q1, Wang ST1, Yang X1, You PP1, Zhang W2.(PubMed)
(225) Cyanidin 3-O-β-D-Glucoside Improves Bone Indices by Kaume L1, Gilbert W1, Smith BJ2, Devareddy L1.(PubMed)
(226) Dual Role of Cyanidin-3-glucoside on the Differentiation of Bone Cells. by Park KH1, Gu DR2, So HS3, Kim KJ1, Lee SH4.(PubMed)
(227) Anti-inflammatory effects of polyphenolic-enriched red raspberry extract in an antigen-induced arthritis rat model by Jean-Gilles D1, Li L, Ma H, Yuan T, Chichester CO 3rd, Seeram NP.(PubMed)
(228) Anti-inflammatory effects of black rice, cyanidin-3-O-beta-D-glycoside, and its metabolites, cyanidin and protocatechuic acid by Min SW1, Ryu SN, Kim DH.(PubMed)
(229) Lipoprotein lipase activity of adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and post-heparin plasma in primary endogenous hypertriglyceridaemia: relation to lipoprotein pattern and to obesity by Taskinen MR, Nikkilä EA, Kuusi T.(PubMed)
(230) Cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside improves obesity and triglyceride metabolism in KK-Ay mice by regulating lipoprotein lipase activity by Wei X1, Wang D, Yang Y, Xia M, Li D, Li G, Zhu Y, Xiao Y, Ling W.(PubMed)