Tuesday, 28 January 2014

Phytochemical Piperine and Obesity's inflammatory metabolic dysfunctions

Piperine is a phytochemical alkaloid in the class of organosulfur compound, found abundantly in white and black pepper, long pepper, etc.
Obesity is defined as a medical condition of excess body fat has accumulated overtime, while overweight is a condition of excess body weight relatively to the height. According to the Body Mass Index(BMI), a BMI between 25 to 29.9 is considered over weight, while a BMI of over 30 is an indication of obesity. According to the statistic, 68% of American population are either overweight or obese.

The benefits
Study of combination of bioactive food ingredients, including piperine in Forty-one patients and 45 patients in control group, showed a significantly greater decrease in insulin resistance, with leptin, ghrelin, C-reactive protein decreased and resting energy expenditure increased significantly in the supplemented group compared to the placebo. In mice fed with high fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis, administration of piperine (50 mg/kg body weight) significant increased in plasma adiponectin levels, induced elevated plasma concentrations of insulin and glucose. Piperine also reversed HFD-induced down-regulation of adiponecitn-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)( a metabolic enzyme in controls a number of metabolic pathways) signalling molecules linking to  lipogenesis, fatty acid oxidation and insulin signalling in the livers of mice. Also in Male Wistar rats fed with high fat diet study, piperine supplementation also improved the plasma levels of apo A-I, T3, T4, testosterone, and I and significantly reduced apo B, TSH, and insulin to near normal levels.

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(1) Improvement in insulin resistance and favourable changes in plasma inflammatory adipokines after weight loss associated with two months' consumption of a combination of bioactive food ingredients in overweight subjects by Rondanelli M, Opizzi A, Perna S, Faliva M, Solerte SB, Fioravanti M, Klersy C, Cava E, Paolini M, Scavone L, Ceccarelli P, Castellaneta E, Savina C, Donini LM.(PubMed)
(2) Piperine reverses high fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in mice by Choi S, Choi Y, Choi Y, Kim S, Jang J, Park T.(PubMed)
(3) Piperine, an active principle from Piper nigrum, modulates hormonal and apo lipoprotein profiles in hyperlipidemic rats by Vijayakumar RS, Nalini N.(PubMed)