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Monday, 27 January 2014

Food Therapy - Dried peas (Pisum)

Dried peas is a small but nutritionally mighty member of the legume family, genus Pisum belongs to the family Fabaceae. It has a healthy source of protein, fibers, vitamins and minerals that is good for everyone diet.

The Nutrients and Chemical constituents
1. Carbohydrates
2. Dietary fiber
3. Fat
4. Protein
5. Vitamin A ( Beta carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin)
6. B vitamins
7. Vitamin C
8. Calcium
9. Iron
10. Magnesium
11. Phosphorus
12. Potassium
13. Zinc
Beside main component of  Polyphenolic compounds, it also contains saponin pisatin, L-pipecolic acid, glycoside-Pisatoside, tocopherols, cerebroside, etc.

1. Dried peas (Pisum)  and Types 2 Diabetes
 Diabetes is defined as a condition caused by insufficient insulin entering the bloodstream to regulate the glucose. It is either caused by cells in pancreas dying off or receptor sites clogged up by fat and cholesterol. In some cases, diabetes is also caused by allergic reactions of cells in the immune system.

The effects
Dried peas found to contain a good sources of protein and fiber, is one of many rich-protein recommended for vegetarian. Together with a low glycemic index it may be considered as a high-fiber foods for daily carbohydrate intake in diabetes. Evidences of studies have showed that a low-glycemic load meal containing psyllium soluble fiber is significantly improves the breakfast postprandial glycemic, insulinemic in adults with Type 2 DM. In the study to compare the glycemic and insulinemic responses to 3 different meals based on dried peas, potatoes, or both in patients with type 2 diabetes, intake of after the pea meal is found to delay of the increased  postprandial plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, when compared to other meal. Since arbohydrates counting in dried peas have been disregarded, the nutrient dried peas should be included in the consumption of low-glycemic, high-fiber foods at the expense of high-glycemic, low-fiber foods for type II diabetics.

References
(1) Effects of breakfast meal composition on second meal metabolic responses in adults with Type 2 diabetes mellitus by Clark CA, Gardiner J, McBurney MI, Anderson S, Weatherspoon LJ, Henry DN, Hord NG.(PubMed)
(2) Comparison of the effects of dried peas with those of potatoes in mixed meals on postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes by Schäfer G, Schenk U, Ritzel U, Ramadori G, Leonhardt U.(PubMed)

2. Dried peas as Antioxidants
A free radical is any atom or molecule that has a single unpaired electron in an outer shell and highly reactive to react with other cell, which in turn, causes oxidative damage to the enzymes, other protein, unsaturated fatty acid, phospho-lipids, DNA and RNA, etc., leading to aging of the organisms, as a result of widespread damage due to set of a chain reaction auto-catalytically after attacking the lipid bilayers of the cell walls. Free radicals oxidative effects can damage to skin and speed up the skin aging process.

The benefits Consumption of low-glycemic, high-fiber foods have been to have no effect in on postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations in type II diabetes, such as dried peas in the family of Fabaceae. The dried powders were individually extracted from the six members in the family, including dried peas have found to exert theirs antioxidant effects against bacteria and free radicals. Other studied also showed that polyphenolics, and saponins as the antioxidants, in dried peas may exhibit hypocholesterolaemic and anticarcinogenic activity, and galactose oligosaccharides exert beneficial prebiotic effects in the large intestine.

Reference
(1) Antioxidative and antibacterial effects of seeds and fruit rind of nutraceutical plants belonging to the Fabaceae family by Chanda S, Dudhatra S, Kaneria M.(PubMed)
(2) Review of the health benefits of peas (Pisum sativum L. by Dahl WJ, Foster LM, Tyler RT.(PubMed)

3. Dried peas and colon cancer
Colon Cancer is defined as a condition of the abnormal proliferation of cells in the colon.

The benefits
Evidences in studies showed positive effect of chemical compounds (polyphenolics, and saponins) in dried peas against the progression of cancers. The organic molecule combinations of TI1B (rTI1B), representing a major The Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) peas-derived serine protease inhibitor not only influenced the negatively the growth of human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT29 cells but not inactive mutant in a dose-dependent manner, but also  inhibited the growth of non-malignant colonic fibroblast CCD-18Co cells. The result may suggested that serine proteases such as trypsin and chymotrypsin, should be considered as important targets in investigating the potential chemopreventive role of BBI during the early stages of colorectal carcinogenesis.

References
(1) Review of the health benefits of peas (Pisum sativum L. by Dahl WJ, Foster LM, Tyler RT.(PubMed)
(2) The anti-proliferative effect of TI1B, a major Bowman-Birk isoinhibitor from pea (Pisum sativum L.), on HT29 colon cancer cells is mediated through protease inhibition by Clemente A, Carmen Marín-Manzano M, Jiménez E, Carmen Arques M, Domoney C.(PubMed)

4. Dried Peas and Weight loss
It has a healthy source of protein, fibers, vitamins and minerals that is good for everyone diet.
Obesity is defined as a medical condition of excess body fat has accumulated overtime, while overweight is a condition of excess body weight relatively to the height. According to the Body Mass Index(BMI), a BMI between 25 to 29.9 is considered over weight, while a BMI of over 30 is an indication of obesity. According to the statistic, 68% of American population are either overweight or obese.

The benefits
The prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic in Western world. The urgency in finding the solution has become the first priority in some research communities. Many researchers suggested to increased consumption of nonoilseed pulses of dry beans, peas, chickpeas, and lentils may be helpful in weight control, as they are slowly digestible carbohydrates, with high fiber and protein contents, and moderate energy density. In a randomized controlled trials generally support a beneficial effect of pulses on weight loss when pulse consumption is coupled with energy restriction, but not without energy restriction, found a beneficial effect of pulses on short-term satiety and weight loss during intentional energy restriction. Other study into the growth, hormonal status and protein turnover in rats fed on a diet containing peas (Pisum sativum L.), showed a positive effects as lower levels of plasma insulin, corticosterone, IGF-I and T4 is observed as compared with casein controls. Liver and muscle total protein (mg) and total DNA (mg) were markedly decreased in the legume fed animals.


References
(1) Pulse consumption, satiety, and weight management by McCrory MA, Hamaker BR, Lovejoy JC, Eichelsdoerfer PE.(PubMed)
(2) Growth, hormonal status and protein turnover in rats fed on a diet containing peas (Pisum sativum L.) as the source of protein by Martinez JA, Marcos R, Macarulla MT, Larralde J.(PubMed)

The Side effects
1. Purines
Excessive intake of purine can cause health problems for people with untreated kidney and gallbladder diseases due to accumulation of uric acid.
2. Etc.