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Monday, 20 January 2014

Food therapy - Strawberries

Strawberry is a genius of Fragaria × ananassa belongs to the family Roseaceae. They have been grown all over the world with suitable climate for commercial profits and for health benefits.

Nutrients and Chemicals constituents
1. Carbohydrate
2. Dietary fiber
3. Omega 3 fatty acid
4. Calcium
5. Iron
6. Magnesium
7. Phosphorus
8. Potassium
9. Sodium
10. Zinc
11. Copper
12. Manganese
13. Selenium
14. Vitamin C
15. Thiamin
16. Niacin
17. Pantothenic acid
18. Vitamin B-6
19. Folate
20. Vitamin B-12
21. Vitamin A
22. Vitamin E
23. Vitamin K
24. Etc. 
The major chemical compounds include anthocyanin and ellagitannins and p-Hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid, ellagic acid, cyanidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3-glucoside, kaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin 
  
1.  Strawberries and Atherosclerosis
Atherosclerosis is defined as a condition of wall thickens or hardening of the arteries.

The benefits
Pgytochemicals anthocyanin and ellagitannins as a the antioxidant have played role played  on fruit absorption, metabolism, and the possible beneficial biological activity on human health, including heart diseases. In subjects with type 2 diabetes: a randomized double-blind controlled trial, freeze-dried strawberry (FDS) improved glycemic control and antioxidant status, and reduced lipid peroxidation and inflammatory response in patients with T2D. Supplementation with freeze-dried berry products, as natural sources of antioxidants with low glycemic index, could be considered as an adjunctive therapy in ameliorating metabolic complications and short-term freeze-dried strawberry supplementation improved selected atherosclerotic risk factors, including dyslipidemia and circulating adhesion molecules in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Other study also indicated of supporting therapeutic roles of strawberries in metabolic syndrome, a prediabetic state characterized by several cardiovascular risk factors as it is found of lowering total and LDL-cholesterol, but not triglycerides, and decreasing surrogate biomarkers of atherosclerosis (malondialdehyde and adhesion molecules).
Reference
(1) The strawberry: composition, nutritional quality, and impact on human health. by Giampieri F, Tulipani S, Alvarez-Suarez JM, Quiles JL, Mezzetti B, Battino M.(PubMed)
(2) Phenolic Composition of Strawberry Genotypes at Different Maturation Stages(ACS Publication)
(3) Effects of freeze-dried strawberry supplementation on metabolic biomarkers of atherosclerosis in subjects with type 2 diabetes: a randomized double-blind controlled trial. by Moazen S, Amani R, Homayouni Rad A, Shahbazian H, Ahmadi K, Taha Jalali M.(PubMed)
(4) Strawberries decrease atherosclerotic markers in subjects with metabolic syndrome.
Basu A, Fu DX, Wilkinson M, Simmons B, Wu M, Betts NM, Du M, Lyons TJ.(PubMed)
(5) Strawberries, Blueberries, and Cranberries in the Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Perspectives.
Basu A, Lyons TJ.(PubMed)

2. Food therapy - Strawberries and Lipid peroxidation
Cholesterol is needed for our body to build cell walls, make hormones and vitamin D, and create bile salts that help you digest fat. However too much of it can be dangerous because cholesterol cannot dissolve in your blood. The special particle called lipoprotein moves this waxy, soft substance from place to place. If you have too much low density lipoprotein LDL that is known as bad cholesterol, overtime cholesterol can build up in your arterial walls causing blockage and leading to heart attack and stroke.
Lipid peroxidation is defined as a condition of oxidative degradation of lipids.

The Benefits
Strawberry chemical constituents are effective antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents in reducing cardiovascular disease risk factors. In the testing of tested the hypothesis of freeze-dried strawberry powder (FSP) will lower fasting lipids and biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation at four weeks compared to baseline, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels and lipid peroxidation in the form of malondialdehyde and hydroxynonenal (-14%, p < 0.01)were significantly lower at 4 weeks versus baseline. Others in the study of fruit extract of three strawberry cultivars also found the similar result as strawberry fruit that has a scavenging effect against the radicals prevents that lipid peroxidation in in vitro environment. In cooked chicken patties, SE also acted as an effective antioxidant and suppressed lipid peroxidation.

Reference
(1) The strawberry: composition, nutritional quality, and impact on human health. by Giampieri F, Tulipani S, Alvarez-Suarez JM, Quiles JL, Mezzetti B, Battino M.(PubMed)
(2) Phenolic Composition of Strawberry Genotypes at Different Maturation Stages(ACS Publication)
(3) Freeze-dried strawberry powder improves lipid profile and lipid peroxidation in women with metabolic syndrome: baseline and post intervention effects. by Basu A, Wilkinson M, Penugonda K, Simmons B, Betts NM, Lyons TJ.(PubMed)
(4) The fruit extract of three strawberry cultivars prevents lipid peroxidation and protects the unsaturated fatty acids in the Fenton reagent environment. by Ozsahin AD, Gokce Z, Yilmaz O, Kirecci OA.(PubMed)
(5) Response surface optimisation of extraction of antioxidants from strawberry fruit, and lipid peroxidation inhibitory potential of the fruit extract in cooked chicken patties.
Saha J, Debnath M, Saha A, Ghosh T, Sarkar PK.(PubMed)

3. Food therapy - Strawberries and Neuroprotective effects
Neuroprotective effects is defined as an event which protect the central nervous system (CNS) by relatively preserving of neuronal structure and/or function.

The benefits
many studies has been oncarrying by scientists to explore the effective agent of which has a potential to prevent or slow disease progression and secondary injuries by halting or at least slowing the loss of neurons. In spite of nitochondrial oxidative stress (MOS)  as a major factor in the underlying pathology of many neurodegenerative diseases, chemical constituent anthocyanins suppress MOS-induced apoptosis by preserving mitochondrial GSH and inhibiting cardiolipin oxidation and mitochondrial fragmentation. Also in the the study of Berry fruit supplementation, polyphenolic compounds found in berry fruits, such as blueberries and strawberries, may exert their beneficial effects either through their ability to lower oxidative stress and inflammation or directly by altering the signaling involved in neuronal communication, calcium buffering ability, neuroprotective stress shock proteins, plasticity, aubMed)nd stress signaling pathways. Dr. Richardson JS. indicated that pharmacological agents that protect damaged neurons are not ready yet for widespread clinical use, neuron damaging oxidative stress can be kept in check by insuring adequate dietary sources of antioxidants with little or no scientific evidence, but the consumption of high antioxidant foods, such as blueberries and strawberries, is appealing to most people regardless of any neuroprotective potential.
Reference
(1) The strawberry: composition, nutritional quality, and impact on human health. by Giampieri F, Tulipani S, Alvarez-Suarez JM, Quiles JL, Mezzetti B, Battino M.(PubMed)
(2) Phenolic Composition of Strawberry Genotypes at Different Maturation Stages(ACS Publication)
(3) The Promise of Neuroprotective Agents in Parkinson’s Disease  by Stacey E. Seidl and Judith A. Potashkin(Frontiers in Neurology)
(4) Neuroprotective effects of anthocyanins on apoptosis induced by mitochondrial oxidative stress. by Kelsey N, Hulick W, Winter A, Ross E, Linseman D.(PubMed)
(5) Neuroprotective agents. by Richardson JS.(PubMed
(6) Berry fruit supplementation and the aging brain. by Shukitt-Hale B, Lau FC, Joseph JA.(PubMed)

4.  Strawberries Anti-inflammatory activities
Inflammation is a condition of Immune system self-protection to remove harmful stimuli, including damaged cells, irritants, pathogens... from our body.

The benefits
Intake fruits and vegetables are considered of reducing the risk of many diseases, including incidence of cardiovascular disease and neurodegeneration. Mixture of blueberry, strawberry, and spinach extracts inhibited prolyl endopeptidase, a regulator of central neuropeptide stability and may be considered as an potential agent in neurology and psychiatry as a result of thiers phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity. In the study to test the anti-inflammatory and blood glucose (BG)-regulating capacity of strawberries in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity, although modest, diet of strawberries is found to reduce the risks associated with obesity and diabetes, and regulate the levels of inflammatory markers in non-obese individuals.

References
(1) Anti-inflammatory and neuroactive properties of selected fruit extracts by Heim KC, Angers P, Léonhart S, Ritz BW.(PubMed)
(2) Dietary strawberry powder reduces blood glucose concentrations in obese and lean C57BL/6 mice, and selectively lowers plasma C-reactive protein in lean mice by Parelman MA, Storms DH, Kirschke CP, Huang L, Zunino SJ.(PubMed)

5. Strawberries and Diabetes
Diabetes is defined as a condition caused by insufficient insulin entering the bloodstream to regulate the glucose. It is either caused by cells in pancreas dying off or receptor sites clogged up by fat and cholesterol. In some cases, diabetes is also caused by allergic reactions of cells in the immune system.

The benefits
Study in a mouse model of diet-induced  to test for the strawberry health effect, show a promising role for dietary strawberries in reducing the risks associated with obesity and diabetes. Phenolic constituent found in the fruit, including  ellagitannins are found to be good potential for the management of hyperglycemia and hypertension linked to type 2 diabetes as purified ellagitannins from strawberries enhanced  the antiproliferative activity and in vitro inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) relevant for potential management of hyperglycemia and hypertension. Unfortunately, Glycemic effect of adding 10-g carbohydrate portions of apple, banana, grapes, honeydew, orange, or strawberries to a standard meal on found that Blood-glucose response to meals containing grapes, honeydew, orange, or strawberries was slightly higher than meals containing apple, banana, or no fruit.

References
(1) Dietary strawberry powder reduces blood glucose concentrations in obese and lean C57BL/6 mice, and selectively lowers plasma C-reactive protein in lean mice by Parelman MA, Storms DH, Kirschke CP, Huang L, Zunino SJ.(PubMed)
(2) Evaluation of antiproliferative, anti-type 2 diabetes, and antihypertension potentials of ellagitannins from strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) using in vitro models, by Pinto Mda S, de Carvalho JE, Lajolo FM, Genovese MI, Shetty K(PubMed)
(3) The glycemic response to meals with six different fruits in insulin-dependent diabetics using a home blood-glucose monitoring system by Hoover-Plow J, Savesky J, Dailey G. (PubMed)

6. Strawberries and Hypertension
Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps out blood. High blood pressure means raising pressure in your heart.If it stays high over time it can damage the body in many ways. Blood pressure medications have undoubtedly prevented many deaths from heart disease in the past 30 years, but they have many side effects such as damaging the kidney.

The benefits
Purified ellagitannins from strawberries were found to be effective in lowering high blood pressure and may be considered as a potential agent in management of hypertension. In the study of alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, and angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) activity using fruit extracts, in general, Strawberry cultivars with combined inhibitory potential against alpha-glucosidase and ACE and with moderate or low alpha-amylase inhibitory potential could be targeted for potential management of hyperglycemia-linked type 2 diabetes and related complication of hypertension. Other in the study of the same above showed high alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity in whole food but. However, very low in all cultivars thus low anti-hypertensive potential.

References
(1) Evaluation of antiproliferative, anti-type 2 diabetes, and antihypertension potentials of ellagitannins from strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) using in vitro models, by Pinto Mda S, de Carvalho JE, Lajolo FM, Genovese MI, Shetty K(PubMed)
(2) Phenolic-linked variation in strawberry cultivars for potential dietary management of hyperglycemia and related complications of hypertension. Cheplick S, Kwon YI, Bhowmik P, Shetty K.(PubMed)

(3) Functionality of bioactive compounds in Brazilian strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) cultivars: evaluation of hyperglycemia and hypertension potential using in vitro models. by da Silva Pinto M, Kwon YI, Apostolidis E, Lajolo FM, Genovese MI, Shetty K.(PubMed
7. Strawberries and Heart diseases
Beside cancer, heart disease kills more than 2,000 Americans everyday. Approximately 60 million Americans have heart disease. There are many causes of heart diseases. Most of heart diseases are caused by high blood pressure contributes to hardening of the arteries. High levels of bad cholesterol (LDL) build up in the arteries as a result of uncontrolled diet with high levels of saturated fat and trans fat. All these add to the formation of atherosclerosis lesions and eventually arterial blockage or anything that serves to damage the inner lining of blood vessels and impedes the transportation of oxygen and nutrition to the heart.

The benefits
Anthocyanin-rich foods, blueberries and strawberries intake is found to be ppotential in preventing myocardial infarction (MI) in young and middle-aged women, according to study, as it associated with a decreased risk of MI  in a comparison of those consuming >3 servings a week and those with lower intake. In other study, the water-soluble pigments, Anthocyanins besides displays wide range of biological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and anti-carcinogenic activities and a variety of effects on blood vessels, platelets and the risk of coronary heart diseases.In fact, Dietary intakes of flavanones, anthocyanidins, and certain foods rich in flavonoids were associated with reduced risk of death due to CHD, CVD, and all causes.

References
(1) High anthocyanin intake is associated with a reduced risk of myocardial infarction in young and middle-aged women by Cassidy A, Mukamal KJ, Liu L, Franz M, Eliassen AH, Rimm EB..(PubMed)
(2) Anthocyanins and heart health by Mazza GJ.(PubMed)

(3) Flavonoid intake and cardiovascular disease mortality: a prospective study in postmenopausal women. byMink PJ, Scrafford CG, Barraj LM, Harnack L, Hong CP, Nettleton JA, Jacobs DR Jr.(PubMed)


8. Strawberries and Breast cancer
Breast cancer (malignant breast neoplasm) is a cancer that starts in the tissues of the breast either from the inner lining of milk ducts (Ductal carcinoma) or the lobules (Lobular carcinoma) supply the ducts with milk. there is also rare cases that breast cancer starts in other areas of the breast. In 2010, over 250,000 new cases of breast cancer were expected to be diagnosed in women in the U.S. alone and the risk of getting invasive breast cancer during life time of a women is 1/8.

The benefits
The consumption of berry fruits, including strawberries, has been suggested to have beneficial effects to human health and reduce the risk of chronic diseases. methanolic extract of strawberry (MESB) fruits in treatment of mice bearing breast adenocarcinoma with MESB blocked the proliferation of tumor cells in a time-dependent manner and resulted in extended life span. Other in the study of the anti cancer effects of The berry extracts showed an ability to inhibit the growth of human oral (KB, CAL-27), breast (MCF-7), colon (HT-29, HCT116), and prostate (LNCaP) tumor cell lines at concentrations ranging from 25 to 200 micro g/mL. by increasing inhibition of cell proliferation in all of the cell lines.

References
(1) Extracts of strawberry fruits induce intrinsic pathway of apoptosis in breast cancer cells and inhibits tumor progression in mice.by Somasagara RR, Hegde M, Chiruvella KK, Musini A, Choudhary B, Raghavan SC.(PubMed)
(2) Blackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry, and strawberry extracts inhibit growth and stimulate apoptosis of human cancer cells in vitro.by Seeram NP, Adams LS, Zhang Y, Lee R, Sand D, Scheuller HS, Heber D.(PubMed)

9.  Strawberries and leukaemia (CEM)
Leukemia is defined as condition of abnormal increase of white blood cells produced by the bone marrow and/or the lymphatic system. Depending to the malignant granulocytes or lymphocytes, leukemia is classified into myelogenous or lymphoblastic leukemia.

The benefits
Intake of certain amounts of berry fruits, including strawberries, has been suggested to have beneficial effects against oxidative stress mediated diseases. The methanolic extract of strawberry (MESB) fruits are found to inhibit the  tumor cell proliferation by activating apoptosis with no side effects in a time-dependent manner and resulted in extended life span. Other in the study of flavonoids from strawberry 'Nohime', showed the effect of these flavonoids on the degranulation in RBL-2H3 cells. due to suppression of [Ca(2+)]i elevation and Syk activation.

References
(1) Extracts of strawberry fruits induce intrinsic pathway of apoptosis in breast cancer cells and inhibits tumor progression in mice by Somasagara RR, Hegde M, Chiruvella KK, Musini A, Choudhary B, Raghavan SC.(PubMed)
(2) Inhibitory effects of flavonoids isolated from Fragaria ananassa Duch on IgE-mediated degranulation in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3.by Itoh T, Ninomiya M, Yasuda M, Koshikawa K, Deyashiki Y, Nozawa Y, Akao Y, Koketsu M.(PubMed)

10. Strawberries and human Oral cancer
Oral cancer is any malignant cell growth in the tissue located in the oral cavity, including the tissue of the lips or the tongue, cheek lining, floor of the mouth, gums (gingiva) and the roof of the mouth (palate).


The benefits
Strawberries contain multiple phenolic compounds, which are thought to contribute to their biological properties in reducing the risk of cancer and chronic diseases. the anthocyanins, the major constituent found in strawberry were the most potent antioxidants in the inhibition of  the growth of human oral (CAL-27, KB) cancer cells with different sensitivities observed between cell lines. Other chemical constituents such as anthocyanins, flavonols, flavanols, ellagitannins, gallotannins, proanthocyanidins, and phenolic acids, are also found to be potent in inhibition of oral cancer in increasing concentration manner.

3. Etc.  
References
(1) Isolation and identification of strawberry phenolics with antioxidant and human cancer cell antiproliferative properties. by Zhang Y, Seeram NP, Lee R, Feng L, Heber D.(PubMed)
(2) Blackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry, and strawberry extracts inhibit growth and stimulate apoptosis of human cancer cells in vitro by Seeram NP, Adams LS, Zhang Y, Lee R, Sand D, Scheuller HS, Heber D.(PubMed)

11. Strawberries and Colon cancer
Cancer is a class of diseases in which a group of cells growing and multiplying disordered and uncontrollable way in our body, have become progressively worse and damaged other healthy tissues, sometimes spreads to other organs in the body via lymph or blood and results may be in death.
Colon Cancer is defined as a condition of the abnormal proliferation of cells in the colon.


The benefits
Ellagitannins (ETs), a class of hydrolyzable tannins found in strawberry, may have beneficial effects against colon cancer as the component releases ellagic acid (EA) and are converted by gut microbiota to urolithin A (UA; 3,8-dihydroxy-6H-dibenzopyran-6-one) type metabolites, which may persist in the colon through enterohepatic circulation. Other study also found that Polyphenol-rich strawberry extracts to potential antiproliferative effectiveness using human cervical cancer (HeLa) and Colon cancer (CaCo-2) cells. In study of multiple phenolic compounds, researchers showed the Crude extracts (250 microg/mL) and pure compounds (100 microg/mL) inhibited the growth of human oral (CAL-27, KB), colon (HT29, HCT-116), and prostate (LNCaP, DU145) cancer cells with different sensitivities observed between cell lines.
Colon Cancer is defined as a condition of the abnormal proliferation of cells in the colon.

References
(1) Effects of fruit ellagitannin extracts, ellagic acid, and their colonic metabolite, urolithin A, on Wnt signaling by Sharma M, Li L, Celver J, Killian C, Kovoor A, Seeram NP.(PubMed)
(2) Berry extracts exert different antiproliferative effects against cervical and colon cancer cells grown in vitro by McDougall GJ, Ross HA, Ikeji M, Stewart D.(PubMed)
(3) Isolation and identification of strawberry phenolics with antioxidant and human cancer cell antiproliferative properties by Zhang Y, Seeram NP, Lee R, Feng L, Heber D.(PubMed)

12. Strawberries and benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer
Starting at age 40, the levels of the by-product prolactin of testosterone of men increases, stimulating the production of the enzyme 5-alpha reductase that causes the conversion of testosterone to gihydro-testosterones DHT triggering prostate enlargement and other problems. Therefore in order to prevent the symptoms of enlarged prostate is to naturally impend the conversion of testosterone to DHT. Unfortunately, aging is not the only cause of enlarged prostate. 
Prostate Cancer is defined as a condition of the abnormal proliferation of cells in the prostate. 

The benefits

Lycopene,  a phytochemical of member of the carotenoid family, found abundantly in tomatoes, tomato-based products, strawberries, and watermelon, has exerted its antioxidant effects in preventing the risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. Other strawberry polyphenols has also exerted its cytotoxic effects on prostate epithelial cell line (P21) and two tumour cell lines relative to comparable normal cells from the same tissue derived from the same patient. Unfortunately, in a three RCTs systematic review, found the high risk of bias in two of the three studies and there is insufficient evidence to either support, or refute, the use of lycopene for the prevention of prostate cancer. Similarly, there is no robust evidence from RCTs to identify the impact of lycopene consumption upon the incidence of prostate cancer, prostate symptoms, PSA levels or adverse events.

References
(1) Lycopene for the prevention and treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer: a systematic review by Ilic D, Misso M.(PubMed
(2) Strawberry polyphenols are equally cytotoxic to tumourigenic and normal human breast and prostate cell lines by Weaver J, Briscoe T, Hou M, Goodman C, Kata S, Ross H, McDougall G, Stewart D, Riches A.(PubMed)
(3) Lycopene for the prevention of prostate cancer by Ilic D, Forbes KM, Hassed C.(PubMed
13. Other potential impact of strawberry on human health

Strawberry phenolics antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action, may be potential impact of directly and indirectly antimicrobial, anti-allergy and anti-hypertensive properties, as well as the capacity to inhibit the activities of some physiological enzymes and receptor properties. Other isolated compounds, linocinnamarin (LN) and and cinnamic acid (CA) are found to be effective in exhibiting antigen (Ag)-stimulated degranulation in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells and may be potential use for alleviating symptoms of type I allergy and The flavonoids found to suppress the degranulation from Ag-stimulated RBL-2H3 cells to different extents and suggested that strawberry would be of some ameliorative benefit for the allergic symptoms.

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References
(1|) The potential impact of strawberry on human health. by Giampieri F, Alvarez-Suarez JM, Mazzoni L, Romandini S, Bompadre S, Diamanti J, Capocasa F, Mezzetti B, Quiles JL, Ferreiro MS, Tulipani S, Battino M.(PubMed)
(2) Phenolic constituents isolated from Fragaria ananassa Duch. inhibit antigen-stimulated degranulation through direct inhibition of spleen tyrosine kinase activation by Ninomiya M, Itoh T, Ishikawa S, Saiki M, Narumiya K, Yasuda M, Koshikawa K, Nozawa Y, Koketsu M.(PubMed)
(3) Inhibitory effects of flavonoids isolated from Fragaria ananassa Duch on IgE-mediated degranulation in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 by Itoh T, Ninomiya M, Yasuda M, Koshikawa K, Deyashiki Y, Nozawa Y, Akao Y, Koketsu M.(PubMed)

The Side effects
1. Some people may beexperience anaphylactoid reaction to the consumption of strawberries


2. Oxalation
Oxalates in high concentration can cause problem for people with kidney diseases.
3. Etc.