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Friday, 17 January 2014

Herbal Aloe Vera- What We Know About?


Aloe Vera is species of succulent plant in the genus Aloe, belonging to the Family Xanthorrhoeaceae, native to Sudan. It has become very popular for commercial cultivation due to its health benefits. Aloe vera has been used in herbal medicine in treating many kinds of disease, including wound, burn healing, minor skin infections, sebaceous cysts, diabetes, and elevated of cholesterol, etc. It is also one of many popular herb studied in scientific ways with some conflicted results.

The Ingredients 
The ten main areas of chemical constituents of Aloe vera include: amino acids, anthraquinones, enzymes, minerals, vitamins, lignins, monosaccharide, polysaccharides, salicylic acid, saponins, and sterols. 

1. The benefits of Aloe vera against acne vulgaris
There are many types of skin diseases in this world, the most common one is acne. Most people know acne is caused by dirt in oily skin pores, but little is known that acne is also caused by the system of toxins in the body. If our liver and kidney can not cleanse all toxins in the body, then our skin become the third source for cleansing the remainder of toxins.

The benefits
Ance vulgaris, one of skin diseases with areas of  scaly red skin with seborrhea, blackheads and whiteheads. Aloe vera one of many herbs has been studied and researched in pharmaceutical world, because of the common problem to the young ages and commercial profits. The study to compare the efficacy and safety of the combination of tretinoin (TR) cream (0.05%) and Aloe vera topical gel (50%) with TR and vehicle, has been well tolerated and significantly more effective than TR and vehicle for the treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris and with less side effects. Other researchers in the observation of  traditional medicines  of many cultures used to treat skin diseases, indicated that certain ingredients, including aloe vera, have been identified  in the treatment of psoriasis and atopic dermatitis,

References
(1) Aloe barbadensis Mill. formulation restores lipid profile to normal in a letrozole-induced polycystic ovarian syndrome rat Model (PubMed)
(2)   ALOE VERA by Gertrude Baldwin, http://www.herballegacy.com/Baldwin_Chemical.html
(3) Effect of Aloe vera topical gel combined with tretinoin in treatment of mild and moderate acne vulgaris: a randomized, double-blind, prospective trial. by Hajheydari Z, Saeedi M, Morteza-Semnani K, Soltani A.(PubMed)
(4) Innovations in natural ingredients and their use in skin care. by Fowler JF Jr, Woolery-Lloyd H, Waldorf H, Saini R.(PubMed)
(5) Oral aloe vera-induced hepatitis(PubMed)
(6) Oral type II collagen in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. A six-month double blind placebo-controlled study(PubMed)

2. Aloe Vera and Skin diseases
Skin diseases is defined as a condition of skin damage and classified according to each pathogenic causes of diseases.

The benefits of Aloe Vera against Skin diseases
In the a systematic review of Aloe vera's clinical effectiveness, topical application of aloe vera is not an effective preventative for radiation-induced skin injuries, but might be effective for genital herpes and psoriasis. In support to the  above, study by Feily A, Namazi MR. indicated that Topical application of aloe vera is not an effective in sunburn or suntan protection, but might be effective in treating genital herpes, psoriasis, human papilloma virus, seborrheic dermatitis, aphthous stomatitis, xerosis, lichen planus, frostbite, burn, wound healing and inflammation.

References
(1) Aloe barbadensis Mill. formulation restores lipid profile to normal in a letrozole-induced polycystic ovarian syndrome rat Model (PubMed)
(2)   ALOE VERA by Gertrude Baldwin, http://www.herballegacy.com/Baldwin_Chemical.html
(3) Aloe vera: a systematic review of its clinical effectiveness by Vogler BK, Ernst E. (PubMed)
(4) Aloe vera in dermatology: a brief review. by Feily A, Namazi MR (PubMed).
(5) Oral aloe vera-induced hepatitis(PubMed)
(6) Oral type II collagen in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. A six-month double blind placebo-controlled study(PubMed)


 3. Aloe vera and Irritable bowel syndrome
Irritable bowel syndrome is defined as a condition, if a patient is diagnosed with abdominal pain or discomfort, bloating, and alteration of bowel habits at least three times a month for the last 3 months without preexistence of other disease.

The effects of Aloe vera in Irritable bowel syndrome
Aloe vera (AV) has long been suggested by herbal medicine in treating irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms. In the comparison of the effectiveness of a mixture of Aloe vera (AV) and Matricaria recutita (German chamomile, GC) in treating Irritable bowel syndrome, GC inhibited only small bowel transit while the AV/GC mixture delayed gastric emptying at the doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg. The AV/GC mixture also reduced colonic transit and small bowel transit at the dose of 150 mg/kg. In other Randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial of to test the effects of aloe vera for irritable bowel syndrome, there was no evidence that AV benefits patients with IBS and superior to placebo in improving quality of life proven Irritable Bowel Syndrome patients., but in 49 completed the protocol to 1 month and 41 to 3 months. Eleven of thirty-one (35%) AV patients, and 6 of 27 (22%) placebo patients responded at 1 month (p = 0.763). Diarrhoea predominant patients showed a trend towards a response to treatment at 1 month (10/23 V 2/14, p = 0.07).

References
(1) Aloe barbadensis Mill. formulation restores lipid profile to normal in a letrozole-induced polycystic ovarian syndrome rat Model (PubMed)
(2)   ALOE VERA by Gertrude Baldwin, http://www.herballegacy.com/Baldwin_Chemical.html
(3) Benefit of Aloe vera and Matricaria recutita mixture in rat irritable bowel syndrome: Combination of antioxidant and spasmolytic effects by Asadi-Shahmirzadi A, Mozaffari S, Sanei Y, Baeeri M, Hajiaghaee R, Monsef-Esfahani HR, Abdollahi M.(PubMed)
(4) Randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial of aloe vera for irritable bowel syndrome.
Davis K, Philpott S, Kumar D, Mendall M.(PubMed)
(5) A Randomised, Cross-Over, Placebo-Controlled Study of Aloe vera in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Effects on Patient Quality of Life by Hutchings HA, Wareham K, Baxter JN, Atherton P, Kingham JG, Duane P, Thomas L, Thomas M, Ch'ng CL, Williams JG.(PubMed)
(7) Oral aloe vera-induced hepatitis(PubMed)
(8) Oral type II collagen in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. A six-month double blind placebo-controlled study(PubMed)

4. Aloe Vera and psoriasis
Psoriasis is defined as chronic condition of inflammatory skin disease, affecting the joins and mostly happens to people who are obese are predisposed to diabetes and heart disease.

The benefits
Many herbal extracts have been used as topical management of plaque psoriasis, including Aloe vera   based on multiple studies. Aloe vera gel is used in alternative medicine over the century for the treatment of skin diseases, including psoriasis, and recent study showed that ethanolic extract of Aloe vera leaf gel also produced a significant increase in relative epidermal thickness and an overall antipsoriatic activity of high effective rate. Other in the comparison of comparion to evaluate the efficacy of Topical aloe vera (AV) and 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide (TA) in mild to moderate plaque psoriasis, AV cream may be more effective than 0.1% TA cream  found to be more effective in reducing the clinical symptoms of psoriasis. Unfortunately, in diverse dermatologic conditions, even though there are some promising results with the use of aloe vera, but clinical effectiveness of oral and topical aloe vera may require further studies, according to the study of Dr. Feily A, and Dr. Namazi MR.

References
(1) Aloe barbadensis Mill. formulation restores lipid profile to normal in a letrozole-induced polycystic ovarian syndrome rat Model (PubMed)
(2)   ALOE VERA by Gertrude Baldwin, http://www.herballegacy.com/Baldwin_Chemical.html
(3) Evaluation of the antipsoriatic activity of Aloe vera leaf extract using a mouse tail model of psoriasis.
(4)A prospective, randomized clinical trial comparing topical aloe vera with 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide in mild to moderate plaque psoriasis by Choonhakarn C, Busaracome P, Sripanidkulchai B, Sarakarn P.(PubMed
(5) Aloe vera in dermatology: a brief review by Feily A, Namazi MR.(PubMed)
(7) Oral aloe vera-induced hepatitis(PubMed)(8) Oral type II collagen in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. A six-month double blind placebo-controlled study(PubMed)


5. Aloe Vera and gingivitis
Gingivitis is defined as a condition of Inflammation of Gum Diseases.

The benefits
Aloe Vera anti-inflammatory property may be the result of the plant used in treatment of gum diseases. In the sudy of 45 patients who were diagnosed with plaque-induced gingivitis were included, aloe mouth wash is proven to be the most potential in reduction in gingival inflammation caused by plagues. Other in the the randomized, controlled, and double-blind study, a total of 148 systemically healthy subjects, showed statistically significant decrease in PI, MGI, and BI scores after the rinse regimen began in comparison with the use of chlorhexidine. But Dr. de Oliveira SM, and the research team in comparison of  Aloe vera and fluoridated dentifrice, found that here was a significant reduction on plaque and gingivitis in both groups, but no statistically significant difference was observed among them (p>0.01), Aloe vera did not show any additional effect on plaque and gingivitis control compared to the fluoridated dentifrice.

References
(1) Aloe barbadensis Mill. formulation restores lipid profile to normal in a letrozole-induced polycystic ovarian syndrome rat Model (PubMed)
(2)   ALOE VERA by Gertrude Baldwin, http://www.herballegacy.com/Baldwin_Chemical.html
(3) Aloe vera: It's effect on gingivitis by Ajmera N, Chatterjee A, Goyal V.(PubMed)
(4) A randomized, double-blind clinical study to assess the antiplaque and antigingivitis efficacy of Aloe vera mouth rinse by Chandrahas B, Jayakumar A, Naveen A, Butchibabu K, Reddy PK, Muralikrishna T.(PubMed)
(5) Effect of a dentifrice containing Aloe vera on plaque and gingivitis control. A double-blind clinical study in humans by de Oliveira SM, Torres TC, Pereira SL, Mota OM, Carlos MX.(PubMed)
(7) Oral aloe vera-induced hepatitis(PubMed)(8) Oral type II collagen in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. A six-month double blind placebo-controlled study(PubMed)

6. Aloe Vera and Gastric Ulcers
Gastric ulcers is defined as a condition of a localized tissue erosion in the lining the stomach. as a result of bacteria Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) in most cases.

The benefits
Some people with gastric ulcers may be not experience any symptoms at all, while others may have burning pain, severe nausea, and vomiting. In the comparison of the effects of Aloe vera and sucralfate on gastric microcirculatory changes, cytokine levels and gastric ulcer healing, treatment of Aloe vera found to reduce leukocyte adherence and TNF-alpha level, elevate IL-10 level and promote gastric ulcer healing. Because of its Anti-inflammatory effects, treatment of  A. vera process the enhancement in leukocyte-endothelium interaction are associated with reduction in TNF-alpha level. Other in the study of acute gastric mucosal lesions induced by 0.6 M HCl and acid outpu, indicated that Aloe vera is endowed with gastric acid anti-secretory activity and could protect the gastric mucosa at low concentrations against injurious agents. Other component of Aloe vera, the Polymer fraction (Avpf; molecular weight cut-off ≥50 kDa; 150 mg/kg body weight, p.o.), reduce 50% of the mRNA expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), according to the study.


References
(1) Aloe barbadensis Mill. formulation restores lipid profile to normal in a letrozole-induced polycystic ovarian syndrome rat Model (PubMed)
(2)   ALOE VERA by Gertrude Baldwin, http://www.herballegacy.com/Baldwin_Chemical.html
(3) Effects of Aloe vera and sucralfate on gastric microcirculatory changes, cytokine levels and gastric ulcer healing in rats, by Eamlamnam K, Patumraj S, Visedopas N, Thong-Ngam D.(PubMed)
(4) Anti-inflammatory effects of Aloe vera on leukocyte-endothelium interaction in the gastric microcirculation of Helicobacter pylori-infected rats by Prabjone R, Thong-Ngam D, Wisedopas N, Chatsuwan T, Patumraj S.(PubMed)
(5) The effect of Aloe vera A. Berger (Liliaceae) on gastric acid secretion and acute gastric mucosal injury in rats by Yusuf S, Agunu A, Diana M.(PubMed)
(6) Polymer fraction of Aloe vera exhibits a protective activity on ethanol-induced gastric lesions.
(7) Oral aloe vera-induced hepatitis(PubMed)
(8) Oral type II collagen in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. A six-month double blind placebo-controlled study(PubMed)

 
7. Aloe Vera and Wound Healing
Wound healing is the natural process of skin repair after it was damaged

The Benefits 
In a systematic review, there are cumulative evidence support that aloe vera might be an effective interventions used in burn wound healing for first to second degree burns as the use of aloe vera shortens the healing time. In acute and chronic wounds, although there are an absence of high quality clinical trial evidence to support the use of Aloe vera topical agents or Aloe vera dressings as treatments for acute and chronic wounds, but some studies found the reduction in healing time with Aloe vera was noted after haemorrhoidectomy (RR 16.33 days, 95% CI 3.46 to 77.15) and application of Aloe vera cream on the surgical site is effective in reducing postoperative pain both on resting and during defecation. In a study of a herbal gel of Aloe vera extract containing Carbopol 93, shows a promising effect on the wound healing process.

References
(1) Aloe barbadensis Mill. formulation restores lipid profile to normal in a letrozole-induced polycystic ovarian syndrome rat Model (PubMed)
(2)   ALOE VERA by Gertrude Baldwin, http://www.herballegacy.com/Baldwin_Chemical.html
(3) The efficacy of aloe vera used for burn wound healing: a systematic review.
Maenthaisong R, Chaiyakunapruk N, Niruntraporn S, Kongkaew C.(PubMed)
(4) Aloe vera for treating acute and chronic wounds. by Dat AD, Poon F, Pham KB, Doust J.(PubMed)
(5) Effects of Aloe vera cream on posthemorrhoidectomy pain and wound healing: results of a randomized, blind, placebo-control study, by Eshghi F, Hosseinimehr SJ, Rahmani N, Khademloo M, Norozi MS, Hojati O.(PubMed)
(6) Formulation development, optimization and evaluation of aloe vera gel for wound healing.
Khan AW, Kotta S, Ansari SH, Sharma RK, Kumar A, Ali J.(PubMed)
(7) Oral aloe vera-induced hepatitis(PubMed)
(8) Oral type II collagen in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. A six-month double blind placebo-controlled study(PubMed)

8. Aloe Vera and Immunity
The immune system is the set of cells and their activity against antigens or infectious agents that comprises of the body's defense system against diseases. The immune system does a great job of keeping people healthy and preventing infections. Beside foods and nutritional supplements, herbs also play a important role in helping the immune system defend against viruses and bacteria attacks.


The benefits
Aloe Vera is best known for it anti-inflammatory effects, in the study to determine the effect of the inner gel on bacterial-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production, Aloe vera suppresses bacterial-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines from human immune cells. In the pharmacological study of Aloe arborescens Miller leaf components, The Aloe extract (1.2 mg ml(-1)) acted as a powerful immune stimulant in LPS- or poly I:C-activated SAF-1 cells, inducing a synergic effect on interconnected genes that are expected to be involved in different aspects of the immune responses. Aloe polymannose, a chemical compound found in Aloe Vera, also enhances the cognitive and immune functioning in patients of Alzheimer's disease by decreasing tumor necrosis factor-α, vascular endothelial growth factor, and interleukins-2 and-4

References
(1) Aloe barbadensis Mill. formulation restores lipid profile to normal in a letrozole-induced polycystic ovarian syndrome rat Model (PubMed)
(2)   ALOE VERA by Gertrude Baldwin, http://www.herballegacy.com/Baldwin_Chemical.html
(3) The inner gel component of Aloe vera suppresses bacterial-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines from human immune cells. by Habeeb F, Stables G, Bradbury F, Nong S, Cameron P, Plevin R, Ferro VA.(PubMed)
(4) Immune modulatory effects of Aloe arborescens extract on the piscine SAF-1 cell line. by Picchietti S, Bernini C, Belardinelli MC, Ovidi E, Taddei AR, Guerra L, Abelli L, Fausto AM.(PubMed)
(5) The effect of an aloe polymannose multinutrient complex on cognitive and immune functioning in Alzheimer's disease. by Lewis JE, McDaniel HR, Agronin ME, Loewenstein DA, Riveros J, Mestre R, Martinez M, Colina N, Abreu D, Konefal J, Woolger JM, Ali KH.(PubMed)
(7) Oral aloe vera-induced hepatitis(PubMed)
(8) Oral type II collagen in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. A six-month double blind placebo-controlled study(PubMed)

9. Aloe Vera and Type II Diabetes
Diabetes is defined as a condition caused by insufficient insulin entering the bloodstream to regulate the glucose. It is either caused by cells in pancreas dying off or receptor sites clogged up by fat and cholesterol. In some cases, diabetes is also caused by allergic reactions of cells in the immune system.

The benefits
Many herbs have been proven in studies to be effective in treating type II diabetes, including Aloe vera. As a popular herbal remedy in the United Kingdom, oral administration of aloe vera might be a useful adjunct for lowering blood glucose in diabetic patients as well as for reducing blood lipid levels in patients with hyperlipidaemia. In other study of Aloe vera gel in a mouse model of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, Oral administration of PAG for 8 weeks was found to reduce circulating blood glucose concentrations to a normal level in these DIO mice. Its leaf is also found to be useful in treating diabetes, as study said A. vera leaf pulp extract showed hypoglycaemic activity on type I (IDDM) and type II (NIDDM) diabetic rats, the effectiveness being enhanced for type II diabetes in comparison with glibenclamide. On the contrary, A. vera leaf gel extract showed hyperglycaemic activity on NIDDM rats.

References
(1) Aloe barbadensis Mill. formulation restores lipid profile to normal in a letrozole-induced polycystic ovarian syndrome rat Model (PubMed)
(2)   ALOE VERA by Gertrude Baldwin, http://www.herballegacy.com/Baldwin_Chemical.html
(3) Aloe vera: a systematic review of its clinical effectiveness. by Vogler BK, Ernst E.(PubMed)
(4) Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of processed Aloe vera gel in a mouse model of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. by Kim K, Kim H, Kwon J, Lee S, Kong H, Im SA, Lee YH, Lee YR, Oh ST, Jo TH, Park YI, Lee CK, Kim K.(PubMed
(5) Effect of Aloe vera leaves on blood glucose level in type I and type II diabetic rat models.

(7) Oral aloe vera-induced hepatitis(PubMed)
(8) Oral type II collagen in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. A six-month double blind placebo-controlled study(PubMed)

10. Aloe Vera and Cancers
Cancer is a class of diseases in which a group of cells growing and multiplying disordered and uncontrollable way in our body, have become progressively worse and damaged other healthy tissues, sometimes spreads to other organs in the body via lymph or blood and results may be in death.

The Benefits  
Aloe-Emodi, a chemical compound found in Aloe vera, specifically suppress breast cancer cell proliferation by targeting ER α protein stability through distinct mechanisms and may be used as a possible application of anthraquinones in preventing or treating breast cancer in the future. Also in other study, Aloe-Emodi is considered as a potential value for the treatment of gastric cancer and cervical cancer because of its mechanisms are by means of cell cycle interruption and induce differentiation and suppressed the expression of PKCalpha and c-myc. Radiotherapy are most often used to treat head and neck cancer patients. Ina study of Aloe Vera, Dr. Ahmadi A. found that oral Aloe vera mouthwash may not only prevent radiation-induced mucositis, but also may reduce oral candidiasis of patients undergoing head and neck radiotherapy due to its antifungal and immunomodulatory properties

References
(1) Aloe barbadensis Mill. formulation restores lipid profile to normal in a letrozole-induced polycystic ovarian syndrome rat Model (PubMed)
(2)   ALOE VERA by Gertrude Baldwin, http://www.herballegacy.com/Baldwin_Chemical.html
(3) Potential prevention: Aloe vera mouthwash may reduce radiation-induced oral mucositis in head and neck cancer patients. by Ahmadi A.(PubMed)
(4) Emodin and Aloe-Emodin Suppress Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation through ER α Inhibition.
Huang PH, Huang CY, Chen MC, Lee YT, Yue CH, Wang HY, Lin H.(PubMed)
(5) Growth inhibitory effects of gastric cancer cells with an increase in S phase and alkaline phosphatase activity repression by aloe-emodin. by Guo J, Xiao B, Zhang S, Liu D, Liao Y, Sun Q.(PubMed
(6) Anticancer effect of aloe-emodin on cervical cancer cells involves G2/M arrest and induction of differentiation. by Guo JM, Xiao BX, Liu Q, Zhang S, Liu DH, Gong ZH.(PubMed)
(7) Oral aloe vera-induced hepatitis(PubMed)
(8) Oral type II collagen in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. A six-month double blind placebo-controlled study(PubMed)


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11. Aloe Vera and Skin Aging
A free radical is any atom or molecule that has a single unpaired electron in an outer shell and highly reactive to react with other cell, which in turn, causes oxidative damage to the enzymes, other protein, unsaturated fatty acid, phospho-lipids, DNA and RNA, etc., leading to aging of the organisms, as a result of widespread damage due to set of a chain reaction auto-catalytically after attacking the lipid bilayers of the cell walls. Free radicals oxidative effects can damage to skin and speed up the skin aging process.

The benefits 
Aging is a natural process, no one can stop but delay it. Aloe Vera Supplementation has long been promote by cosmetic industrial for reducing the progress of skin aging. The study of 30 healthy female subjects over the age of 45 received 2 different doses (low-dose: 1,200 mg/d, high-dose: 3,600 mg/d) of aloe vera gel supplementation for 90 days. to determine the effect of aloe gel on the clinical signs and biochemical changes of aging skin, researchers found that the facial wrinkles improved significantly (p<0.05) in both groups, and facial elasticity improved in the lower-dose group. In the photoprotected skin, the type I procollagen mRNA levels were increased in both groups, albeit without significance; the MMP-1 mRNA levels were significantly decreased in the higher-dose group. In UVB-Induced Skin Photoaging in vitro, aloe shoot extract (AE), which is from the four-month-old shoots of Aloe vera, have a protective effect on UVB-induced skin photoaging in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). As a anti-inflammatory agent,  aloe vera, havs been identified as beneficial in the treatment of psoriasis and atopic dermatitis.

References
(1) Aloe barbadensis Mill. formulation restores lipid profile to normal in a letrozole-induced polycystic ovarian syndrome rat Model (PubMed)
(2)   ALOE VERA by Gertrude Baldwin, http://www.herballegacy.com/Baldwin_Chemical.html
(3) Dietary Aloe Vera Supplementation Improves Facial Wrinkles and Elasticity and It Increases the Type I Procollagen Gene Expression in Human Skin in vivo. by Cho S, Lee S, Lee MJ, Lee DH, Won CH, Kim SM, Chung JH.(PubMed)
(4) A Comparative Study of Baby Immature and Adult Shoots of Aloe Vera on UVB-Induced Skin Photoaging in vitro. by Hwang E, Kim SH, Lee S, Lee CH, Do SG, Kim J, Kim SY.(PubMed)
(5) Innovations in natural ingredients and their use in skin care.
Fowler JF Jr, Woolery-Lloyd H, Waldorf H, Saini R.(PubMed)
(5) Oral aloe vera-induced hepatitis(PubMed)
(6) Oral type II collagen in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. A six-month double blind placebo-controlled study(PubMed)

12. Aloe Vera and Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome 
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome is defined as endocrinologic diseases caused by undeveloped follicles clumping on the ovaries that interferes with the function of the normal ovaries as resulting of enlarged ovaries, leading to hormone imbalance( excessive androgen), resulting in male pattern hair development, acne,irregular period or absence of period, weight gain and effecting fertility. It effects over 5% of women population or 1 in 20 women. According to the study by Desai BN, Maharjan RH, Nampoothiri LP. almost 70% PCOS women have abnormal serum lipid levels (dyslipidemia) and 50% of these women are obese. Several classes of pharmacological agents have been used to manage dyslipidemia. However, studies have shown adverse effects associated with these drugs(1).

The Benefits
Aloe Vera may be a potential herb in treating Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome by enhancing the reductions of plasma triglyceride and LDL cholesterol levels, with an increase in HDL cholesterol or by restoring the ovarian steroid status. According to the study of PCOS was induced in Charles Foster female rats by oral administration of non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor letrozole (0.5 mg/kg body weight, 21 days), AVG treated PCOS rats exhibited significant reduction in plasma triglyceride and LDL cholesterol levels, with an increase in HDL cholesterol. The gel treatment also caused reversion of abnormal estrous cyclicity, glucose intolerance, and lipid metabolizing enzyme activities, bringing them to normal. Other study also indicated that Aloe vera gel formulation exerts a protective effect in against the PCOS phenotype by restoring the ovarian steroid status, and altering key steroidogenic activity. This can be attributed to phyto-components present in the extract.
Dr.Pérez YY and the research team in the study of Effect of a polyphenol-rich extract from Aloe vera gel on experimentally induced insulin resistance in mice also indicated that decreasing significantly both body weight (p < 0.008) and blood glucose levels of Aloe, calculated using the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) formula by the polyphenol-rich extract from Aloe vera.
Also in the confirmation of aboce result, study of Aloe vera leaves on blood glucose level in type I and type II diabetic rat models, vera leaf pulp extract showed hypoglycaemic activity on IDDM and NIDDM rats, the effectiveness being enhanced for type II diabetes in comparison with glibenclamide. On the contrary, A. vera leaf gel extract showed hyperglycaemic activity on NIDDM rats. It may therefore be concluded that the pulps of Aloe vera leaves devoid of the gel could be useful in the treatment of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Where non-diabetic (ND), type I (IDDM) and type II (NIDDM) diabetic rats.

References
(1) Aloe barbadensis Mill. formulation restores lipid profile to normal in a letrozole-induced polycystic ovarian syndrome rat Model (PubMed)
(2)   ALOE VERA by Gertrude Baldwin, http://www.herballegacy.com/Baldwin_Chemical.html
(3) Effect of Aloe barbadensis Mill. formulation on Letrozole induced polycystic ovarian syndrome rat model (PubMed)
(4) Effect of a polyphenol-rich extract from Aloe vera gel on experimentally induced insulin resistance in mice (PubMed)
(5) Oral aloe vera-induced hepatitis(PubMed)
(6) Oral type II collagen in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. A six-month double blind placebo-controlled study(PubMed)

13. Aloe vera and breast cancer
Breast cancer (malignant breast neoplasm) is a cancer that starts in the tissues of the breast either from the inner lining of milk ducts (Ductal carcinoma) or the lobules (Lobular carcinoma) that supply the ducts with milk. there is also rare cases that breast cancer starts in other areas of the breast. In 2010, over 250,000 new cases of breast cancer were expected to be diagnosed in women in the U.S. alone and the risk of getting invasive breast cancer during life time of a women is 1/8.

The benefits
Aloe-Emodin, chemical components found in Aloe-vera and other herbssuch as  rhubarb, have been researched for treamtns of certain kinds of diseases, including cancers. The efficacy of the conponents are found to inhibit breast cancer cell proliferation by downregulating ER α protein levels, thereby suppressing ER α transcriptional activation. In the study of another constituent, a natural anthracycline from Aloe plant found to exhibit the cytotoxic activity against two human breast cancer cell lines; without (MCF-7) and with (SKBR-3) erbB-2-topoIIalpha coamplification.
The above finding suggested that Aloe vera chemical constituents may be a potential new medicine to treat breast cancer

References
(1) Emodin and Aloe-Emodin Suppress Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation through ER α Inhibition.
Huang PH, Huang CY, Chen MC, Lee YT, Yue CH, Wang HY, Lin H.(PubMed)
(2) Cytotoxicity of a natural anthraquinone (Aloin) against human breast cancer cell lines with and without ErbB-2: topoisomerase IIalpha coamplification by Esmat AY, Tomasetto C, Rio MC.(PubMed)
(3) Oral type II collagen in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. A six-month double blind placebo-controlled study(PubMed)
(4) Oral aloe vera-induced hepatitis(PubMed)
14. Aloe vera and prostate cancer
Prostate cancer is defined as a condition in which the cells of prostate has become cancerous, causing abnormal cell growth which spread to the distant parts of the body. Most prostate cancers are slow growing and enlarged prostate and prostate cancer may be detected during the Physical (rectum) exams.
The benefits
 Aloe-amodin, an anthraquinone present in aloe latex from the aloe plant has been found to suppress Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation through ER α Inhibition. In prostate cancer study, the phytochemical   inhibited both proliferation and anchorage-independent growth of PC3 cells by targeting mTORC2 as mTORC2  which plays an important role in PC3 androgen refractory prostate cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth.

References
(1) Aloe-emodin suppresses prostate cancer by targeting the mTOR complex 2 by Liu K, Park C, Li S, Lee KW, Liu H, He L, Soung NK, Ahn JS, Bode AM, Dong Z, Kim BY, Dong Z.(PubMed)
(2) Oral type II collagen in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. A six-month double blind placebo-controlled study(PubMed)
(3) Oral aloe vera-induced hepatitis(PubMed)
15. Aloe vera and colon cancer
Colon Cancer is defined as a condition of the abnormal proliferation of cells in the colon.

The benefits
Aloe emodin (AE), found in Aloe vera has been suggested to have antiproliferative activity in various cancer cell lines in many studies. In the study of coplon cancer, AE appreciably induced cell death specifically through the induction of apoptosis and by activating caspases 9/6, depending on caspase-
6. Other study on colon cancer also showed an efficacy of AE as it suppressed the nuclear translocation and DNA binding of NF-κB, which is an important transcription factor for controlling MMP-2/9 and VEGF gene expression.

References
(1) Effect of inhibition of aloe-emodin on N-acetyltransferase activity and gene expression in human malignant melanoma cells (A375.S2) by Lin SY, Yang JH, Hsia TC, Lee JH, Chiu TH, Wei YH, Chung JG.(PubMed)
(2) Aloe emodin induces G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via activation of caspase-6 in human colon cancer cells by Suboj P, Babykutty S, Srinivas P, Gopala S.(PubMed)
(3) Aloe emodin inhibits colon cancer cell migration/angiogenesis by downregulating MMP-2/9, RhoB and VEGF via reduced DNA binding activity of NF-κB by Suboj P, Babykutty S, Valiyaparambil Gopi DR, Nair RS, Srinivas P, Gopala S.(PubMed)

16.  Aloe vera and lung cancer
Lung cancer is defined as a condition of the abnormal growth of the cells in the lung's tissue. Most common form of primary lung cancers are derived from epithelial cells. In Us, Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths, causing 158,683 people deaths, including 88,329 men and 70,354 women, according to 2007 statistic.
The Ingredients
The main areas of chemical constituents of Aloe vera include: Aloe-Emodin, amino acids, anthraquinones, enzymes, minerals, vitamins, lignins, monosaccharide, polysaccharides, salicylic acid, saponins, and sterols.

The benefits
Aloe-emodin has been studied extensively through our scientific community for their effects against cancer including the study of induced apoptosis in lung carcinoma cell lines CH27 (human lung squamous carcinoma cell)  by breaking of DNA strands (DNA ladders and sub-G(1) formation) and regulating of the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins (a suppressor of apoptosis). In the study of the effects of aloe-emodin-induced cell death in the human lung nonsmall cell carcinoma cell line H460,  aloe-emodin involved the regulating apoptotic cell death through the a class of mitogen-activated protein kinases(p38). These results suggested that aloe-amodin found in ALOE VERA may be a potential agent for preventing and treating lung cancer.

References
(1) Effects and mechanisms of aloe-emodin on cell death in human lung squamous cell carcinoma.
Lee HZ, Hsu SL, Liu MC, Wu CH.(PubMed)
(2) Signaling pathway for aloe-emodin-induced apoptosis in human H460 lung nonsmall carcinoma cell. by Yeh FT, Wu CH, Lee HZ(PubMed
The Side effects
 People with gallbladder disease may want to consult with their doctor before using because of the herb stimulating gallbladder contraction effect.



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