Sunday, 7 October 2018

Carrot and its Bioactive Compounds In Reducing Risk, Progression and Treatment of Gastric Cancer

Kyle J. Norton

Carrots may have a therapeutic and positive effect in reducing risk, progression, and treatment of gastric/stomach cancer, some scientists suggested.

Gastric (Stomach)  cancer is a condition characterized by cell growth disorderly and uncontrollably in breast tissue.

At the later stage, the cancerous cells may infect other healthy tissue and organ a distance away from the original site.

The exact causes of gastric cancer are unknown. Researchers do not know why people with the same health conditions and eating habits in the same family, some are susceptible to the onset of the disease while others do not.

However, scientists do know that certain risk factors such as Helicobacter pylori infection,  smoking family history, mutated gene inherited from the parents, some stomach conditions and previous stomach surgery are at the elevated risk of gastric cancer.

Moreover, people who have exposed to ionizing radiation, are smokers with type A blood and eating lots of processed meats are also at a higher risk of gastric cancer.

The American Cancer Association in the article of Can Gastric Cancer Be Prevented? wrote. "A diet high in fresh fruits and vegetables can also lower stomach cancer risk. Citrus fruits (such as oranges, lemons, and grapefruit) may be especially helpful" and ".. eating at least 2½ cups of vegetables and fruits every day. Choosing whole-grain bread, pasta, and cereals instead of refined grains, and eating fish, poultry, or beans instead of processed meat and red meat may also help lower your risk of cancer".

These suggestions strongly agreed that by following a healthy diet and lifestyle with moderate physical activity, the risk of gastric cancers can be reduced substantially and effectively.

Carrot, a root vegetable with an orange color is a subspecies of Daucus carota, belongings to the family Apiaceae, native to Asian and Europe.

In the evaluation of carrot intake and risk of gastric cancer, by searching the database of medical
literature from PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Persian databases like Scientific Information Database (SID) and IranMedx, researchers found that out of 81 articles collected with 5 selected to the study, carrot consumption exerts a reduced gastric cancer risk by 26% with an odds ratio of .74 compared to nonconsumers.

Some researchers suggested that lycopene isolated from the carrot and tomato may have a substantial inhibitory effect in reducing the risk of gastric cancer caused by oxidative stress, DNA damage, and Helicobacter pylori infection.

Overproduction of ROS, the reactive oxygen species may induce a chain reaction in stimulating more production of free radicals, causing cells and tissues damage and alternated DNA of healthy cells.

Lycopene, a bioactive compound antioxidant found in carrot showed a strong implication of on iron metabolism, thus reducing iron-mediated oxidative stress in the induction of cancer cells proliferation and initiation.

Furthermore, application of lycopene also expressed an inhibition of iron-catalyzed lipid peroxidation by decreasing the malondialdehyde level and enhancing the production of natural antioxidants superoxide dismutase activities in serum and tissues.

These results indicated that administration of lycopene not only inhibits overproduction of ROS through its antioxidant activity but also stimulates the expression of natural antioxidants in the host body tissue in preventing DNA damage of healthy cell. 

With H. pylori-induced chronic inflammation in facilitating risk of gastric cancer, researchers at the Yonsei University found that injection lycopene exerts a significant effect in inhibiting the increase of ROS, apoptosis, alterations in cell-cycle distribution in human gastric carcinoma AGS cells.

The results of above differentiation were supported by the study from the period 1997-1999 with 120 incident and histologically verified cases of stomach cancer, matched on age, sex, residence, and urban/rural status and 360 controls conducted by the Jiangsu Cancer Hospital and Research Institute.

According to the study, vitamin A, alpha-carotene and lycopene found in carrot and tomato were associated with strongly inverse relationships with stomach cancer with alpha-carotene scored the highest odds ratio of .34.

The joint exposure to high intakes of alpha-carotene and vitamin C was associated with an even higher reduction of gastric cancer risk with the odds ratio of only 0.11. 

The findings strongly suggested that long-term intake of carrot in moderate amounts may have substantial implication in the prevention and treatment of gastric cancer. But Intake of carrot supplement should be taken with care to prevent acute liver toxicity.


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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

Sources
(1) Effect of Carrot Intake in the Prevention of Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis by Fallahzadeh H1, Jalali A2, Momayyezi M1, Bazm S3(PubMed)
(2) Dietary carotenoids and risk of gastric cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay by De Stefani E1, Boffetta P, Brennan P, Deneo-Pellegrini H, Carzoglio JC, Ronco A, Mendilaharsu M.(PubMed)
(3) Anticancer Effect of Lycopene in Gastric Carcinogenesis by Mi Jung Kim and Hyeyoung Kim(PMC)
(4) Protective effects of lycopene on oxidative stress, proliferation, and autophagy in iron supplementation rats by Liu C1, Wang R, Zhang B, Hu C, Zhang H.(PubMed)
(5) Lycopene inhibits Helicobacter pylori-induced ATM/ATR-dependent DNA damage response in gastric epithelial AGS cells by Jang SH1, Lim JW1, Morio T2, Kim H3. (PubMed)