Wednesday, 31 October 2018

Eggplant, the Free Radical Scavengers Functional Food, Scientists Find

By Kyle J. Norton

Scientists may have found a whole vegetable which processes the function in balancing the ratio of free radicals and antioxidants, some studies suggested.

Free radicals are unstable molecules with an unpaired electron in the outer ring. In order for them to become stable, free radicals always seek other atoms or molecules to bond to leading to domino's effect that cannot stop until they are either pair or inhibited by antioxidants

The continuation of this domino's effects is known to begin a process called oxidative stress. A prolonged period of overexpression of free radical can cause oxidative stress, a major cause of some chronic diseases, including diabetes.

Truly, free radicals and oxidants play a dual role as both toxic and beneficial compounds. On the benefit side, according to Wanjek wrote in 2006, "The body's ability to turn air and food into chemical energy depends on a chain reaction of free radicals. Free radicals are also a crucial part of the immune system, floating through the veins and attacking foreign invaders".

Free radicals can promote toxicity to cancer cells, leading to antiproliferative and apoptotic effects without harming the nearby healthy cell if administration with dietary antioxidants or stimulated the production of antioxidants enzymes in the host through healthy food sources.

On the other hand, overexpression of free radical can be very harmful, Dr. Lien Ai Pham-Huy, the lead author in the study "Free Radicals, Antioxidants in Disease and Health" said, "When an overload of free radicals cannot gradually be destroyed, their accumulation in the body generates a phenomenon called oxidative stress. This process plays a major part in the development of chronic and degenerative illness such as cancer, autoimmune disorders, aging, cataract, rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases".

"The human body has several mechanisms to counteract oxidative stress by producing antioxidants, which are either naturally produced in situ, or externally supplied through foods and/or supplements".

These analyses suggested that a healthy diet and lifestyle play a critical role in reducing the risk of imbalance of the ratio of free radicals and antioxidants by increasing the expression of antioxidants and decreasing the risk of overload of free radicals.

Eggplant is a species of S. melongena, belonging to the family Solanaceae and native to India. The plant has been cultivated in southern and eastern Asia since prehistory.

It is famous for its deep purple and the best eggplant can be found from August through October when it is in season.

The vegetable chemical compounds include sterols (i.e. typical plant sterols, androstane, pregnane and cholestane derivatives, steroidal alkaloids and sapogenins), phytosterols, triterpenes, δ-amyrin, Chlorogenic acid, Nasunin, and other Polyphenolic compounds.

In the reaffirming of the effects of eggplant rich source of polyphenol compounds endowed with antioxidant properties, researchers launched an evaluation to compare the antioxidant activity of the extract polyphenols from eggplant entire fruit, pulp, or skin, both fresh and dry and conventional extraction and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE).

In the time exposure 15, 30, 60, and 90 min) and solvent water 100% or ethanol/water, researchers found that 50% dry peeled skin treated with 50% aqueous ethanol, exerted a good antioxidant activity expressed by its capacity to scavenge superoxide anion and to inhibit lipid peroxidation compared to another eggplant extract.

Furthermore, in the evaluation of the antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of Solanum anguivi fruit (SAG)(Eggplant) and its possible effect on mitochondrial permeability transition pore as well as mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) isolated from rat liver, researchers showed that
* SAG exhibited potent and concentration-dependent free radical-scavenging activity (IC50/DPPH=275.03±7.8 μg/mL).

* Reductive and iron chelation abilities also increase with an increase in SAG concentration.

* SAG also inhibited peroxidation of cerebral and hepatic lipids subjected to iron oxidative assault.

The effect of eggplant in reducing the expression of free radical was attributed to the presence of major bioactive compounds, including gallic acid [(17.54±0.04) mg/g], chlorogenic acid (21.90±0.02 mg/g), caffeic acid (16.64±0.01 mg/g), rutin [(14.71±0.03) mg/g] and quercetin [(7.39±0.05) mg/g].

Dr. Elekofehinti OO, the lead scientist said, "SAG extract is a potential source of natural antioxidants that may be used not only in pharmaceutical and food industry but also in the treatment of diseases associated with oxidative stress".

Taken all together, there is no doubt that eggplant processes a powerful antioxidants activity in the prevention of overexpression of free radical in the initiation of oxidative stress and combined with a primary theory for the treatment of oxidative stress-related diseases, depending on the confirmation of further data collection from the large example size and multi-center studies in human.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of microwave-assisted Solanum melongena extracts by Salerno L, Modica MN, Pittalà V, Romeo G, Siracusa MA, Di Giacomo C, Sorrenti V, Acquaviva R.(PubMed)
(2) African eggplant (Solanum anguivi Lam.) fruit with bioactive polyphenolic compounds exerts in vitro antioxidant properties and inhibits Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial swelling by Elekofehinti OO1, Kamdem JP, Bolingon AA, Athayde ML, Lopes SR, Waczuk EP, Kade IJ, Adanlawo IG, Rocha JB. (PubMed)

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