Sunday, 7 October 2018

Fennel,The Natural Remedy Which Protects the Brain Neurons Against The Onset of Cognitive Impairment, Scientists Suggest

Kyle J. Norton

Fennel may process a sustainable and therapeutic effect in enhancing cognitive functions, some scientists suggested.

Cognitive function is a mental process of the brain, with an aim to acquire knowledge by accumulating information through reasoning, memory, attention, and language, regardless of circumstances.

On the other hand, cognitive impairment, depending on the severity is a condition in which the infected person has trouble remembering, learning new things, concentrating, or making decisions that affect the quality of their everyday life.

In the elderly, most cases of cognitive impairment are associated with neurodegenerative diseases and longterm use of medication, including Alzheimer's;s disease.

However,  malnutrition, hormone imbalance such as thyroid hormone, mental illness, and substance abuse, particularly, in brain damage or injury are some of the major and prevalent risk factors that can cause the early onset of cognitive impairment.

Some researchers suggested that people who have metabolic syndrome (abnormally high blood pressure, and high blood sugar, obesity and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride level), mental illness and previously disturbed the state of mind due to fever, intoxication are also at a higher risk of the condition develops.

Dr. Fernando Gómez-Pinilla, in the study of the effects of nutrients on brain function, wrote. "diets that are high in saturated fat are becoming notorious for reducing molecular substrates that support cognitive processing and increasing the risk of neurological dysfunction in both humans and animals"

And, Dr. Alan J. Gow, the lead scientist, in the study of the effects of lifestyle in cognitive impairment, said, " Lifestyle factors, particularly those which are malleable across the life course, may be highly informative for the development of interventions to reduce or delay age-related cognitive decline".

These explanations strongly agreed that following a healthy diet plenty of fruits and vegetable and less in saturated and trans fat, processed meat, refined products,...... salt and sugar, and lifestyle with moderate exercise may have a significant effect in protecting the brain neurons against the onset of cognitive impairment.

Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is a plant species of the genus, belonging to Apiaceae (Umbelliferae), native to the Mediterranean.

The herb has been used in traditional and herbal medicine as warming, carminative, antispasmodic, antidepressant agent and to stimulate the appetite, ease indigestion, soothe coughing, reduce intestinal spasms, to regulate the menstrual cycle and relieve PMS,...
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 Anethole, the main fragrance and bioactive compound of fennel, in the study of  20 other plant species was found to process nootropic activity in protecting the neurons degeneration, including diseases associated with a decline in cognitive abilities such as Alzheimer's disease through its anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective expression.

In the inflammatory expression, application of anethole exerted a significant effect in mediated NF-kB in the systematically inflammatory response induced by transcription of proinflammatory genes and TNF-α signaling in the production inflammatory factors in the acute phase of infection.

The initiation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine in case of acute infection is a natural defense of the immune response to protect the injured tissue against the invasion of bacteria and virus. However, overexpression of inflammatory factors may also catalyze tissue damage and cause neuron cell death. 

In oxidative perspective, application of anethole in the tested model also demonstrated a strong effect in inhibiting reactive oxygen species ROS which cause the cytotoxicity to neuron through its antioxidant and stimulated the production of the host antioxidant defense.

Injection of anethole also rebalanced the ratio of levels of free radicals and antioxidants, thus reducing the risk in the initiated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the precipitation of the death of brain cell that controls memory or other cognitive functions.

Furthermore, in the evaluated fennel effect in Alzheimer's disease, a neurodegenerative disorder associated with a decline in cognitive abilities, researchers found that fennel intake exerts a strong neuroprotective effect in protecting against the progressive degeneration.

The methanol extract of the whole plant of F. vulgare administered for eight successive days ameliorated the deficit of memory caused by brain damage, disease, or psychological trauma induced by scopolamine and aging-induced memory deficits in mice.

In acetylcholinesterase AChE induced neurotoxicity in mice, application of extract also increased step-down latency and reserved the neuron damage caused by acetylcholinesterase AChE toxicity.

Dr. Preksha Dwivedi, the lead authors, after taking into account of other co and confounders said, "Foeniculum vulgare Linn. The extract used as a nootropic and anticholinesterase agent in mice. F. vulgare extract increased step-down latency and acetylcholinesterase inhibition in mice significantly. F. vulgare is employed in the treatment of cognitive disorders such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease".

Taken together, fennel, fennel extracts or its bioactive anethole may be considered a functional food for enhancing the memory or other cognitive functions through its neuroprotective and nootropic activity. However, intake of fennel extracts should be taken with extreme care in the prevention of acute liver toxicity.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.


Sources
(1) Cholinergic basis of memory-strengthening effect of Foeniculum vulgare Linn by Joshi H1, Parle M.(PubMed)
(2) A TRADITIONAL APPROACH TO HERBAL NOOTROPIC AGENTS: AN OVERVIEW Preksha Dwivedi, Richa Singh, Mohd.Tabish Malik and Talha Jawaid(International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Research)
(5) Foeniculum vulgare Mill: A Review of Its Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Contemporary Application, and Toxicology by Shamkant B. Badgujar,* Vainav V. Patel, and Atmaram H. Bandivdekar(PubMed)
(4) Anethole and Its Role in Chronic Diseases by Aprotosoaie AC1, Costache II2, Miron A3.(PubMed)
(5) Brain foods: the effects of nutrients on brain function by Fernando Gómez-Pinilla. (PMC)
(6) Lifestyle Factors and Cognitive Ageing: Variation across Ability and Lifestyle Domains by Alan J. Gow, Allison A. M. Bielak, and Denis Gerstorf. (PMC)