The risk of miscarrying is increased substantially in excessive (over 4 cups/day) coffee drinkers during pregnancy, an Asian study suggested.
A miscarriage, according to the definition is the loss of a fetus before the 20th week of pregnancy.
In a case-controlled study conducted in Milan of 561 (72%) cases of spontaneous abortion and 877 (57%) controls, coffee drinking during the first trimester of the index pregnancy with healthy women who gave birth at term (> 37 weeks gestation) to healthy infants as control, researchers reported that the risk of miscarry is classified as follows
* Coffee intake of 1, 2 or 3, and 4 or more cups of coffee per day are associated with an increased risk of 1.2, 1.8 and 4.0, respectively in compared to nondrinkers.
* The risk of pregnancy loss also is associated with the duration in years of coffee drinking. The estimated multivariate odds ratios of spontaneous abortion were 1.1 in comparison to non-coffee intake group.
Furthermore, in the evaluated effect of caffeine in influence of miscarriage researchers at the Boston University School of Public Health, conducted a prospective cohort study included 5132 Danish women planning pregnancy, enrolled from 2007 to 2010, after carefully assessed the returned beverage consumption on questionnaires, researcher found that a significantly miscarried risk is 1.62 higher in women consuming more than 300 mg/day of caffeine per day, in compared to 1.09 in women who consume <100 mg/day. Specifically, women with daily intake of caffeine of
* <100 mg/day showed a materially associated with SAB risk of 1.09.
* 100-199mg/day showed a materially associated with SAB risk of 0,89.
* 200-299mg/day showed a materially associated with SAB risk of 1.33
Additionally, in prospective cohort study included 15,590 pregnancies from 11,072 women with no history of SAB in the Nurses' Health Study II (1991-2009) with beverage intake assessed every 4 years using a validated questionnaire in case pregnancies lost spontaneously at <20 weeks gestation, total coffee intake had a positive, linear association with SAB.
In compared to non-pre-pregnancy coffee intake, the risk of SAB increased by 20% for women consuming ≥4 servings/day.
More importantly, Dr. Gaskins AJ, the lead author said, "Pre-pregnancy coffee consumption at levels ≥4 servings/day is associated with the increased risk of SAB, particularly at weeks 8-19".
Taking together, there is no doubt that coffee may contribute to a relative risk of miscarrying for women consuming more than 4 cups per day.
Women who are pregnant between 12 to 28 weeks of gestation with excessive coffee intake habit are recommended to consult with their doctors.
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Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) Coffee consumption and risk of hospitalized miscarriage before 12 weeks of gestation by Parazzini F1, Chatenoud L, Di Cintio E, Mezzopane R, Surace M, Zanconato G, Fedele L, Benzi G.(PubMed)
(2) Caffeine and caffeinated beverage consumption and risk of spontaneous abortion by Hahn KA1, Wise LA2, Rothman KJ3, Mikkelsen EM4, Brogly SB5, Sørensen HT6, Riis AH4, Hatch EE5.(PubMed)
(3) Pre-pregnancy caffeine and caffeinated beverage intake and risk of spontaneous abortion by Gaskins AJ1,2, Rich-Edwards JW3,4,5, Williams PL3,6, Toth TL7, Missmer SA3,4,8,9, Chavarro JE10,3,4.(PubMed)