Friday, 12 October 2018

Respiratory Disease: 5 Most Common Complications of Bronchiectasis

By Kyle J. Norton

Respiratory disease is a medical condition, affecting the breathing organ and tissues including Inflammatory lung disease, obstructive lung diseases, restrictive lung diseases, respiratory tract infections, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, the nerves and muscles breathing, etc,

According to a statistic provided by the Office of Diseases Prevention and Health Promotion, currently, more than 25 million people in the United States have asthma. Approximately 14.8 million adults have been diagnosed with COPD, and approximately 12 million people have not yet been diagnosed.

Complications are secondary diseases or conditions aggravating an already existing one.
Bronchiectasis is a condition characterized by the damage of the localized, irreversible dilation of a part of the bronchial tree and the walls of the large airways of the lung as a result of the destruction of the lung muscles and elastic tissues.

Bronchiectasis can be presented alone.

The exact causes of bronchiectasis are unknown. However, researchers do know that certain risk factors including childhood infections, severe lung infection in childhood, immunodeficiency, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), aspiration,  cystic fibrosis, cilia abnormalities, and connective tissue diseases are associated with the increased risk of the onset of the disease.

In the article "Gene Mutations Linked to Other Lung Diseases May Contribute to Bronchiectasis, Study Suggests", Dr. Patricia Inacio wrote, "Mutations in genes linked to other lung diseases, specifically cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia, may also contribute to bronchiectasis, according to researchers from China".

 But in most cases, it is a disease coexisted with a patient of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

If you have developed symptoms of a chronic cough, coughing up blood. abnormal weird sounds or wheezing in the chest with breathing. shortness of breath and chest pain, you may have bronchiectasis. Please check with your doctor to rule out the possibility.

1. Arterial stiffness (an indicator of increased CV risk), increased inflammation, reduced exercise capacity and bone thinning.

In the study to investigate of a total of 20 patients with noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis and compare to 20 controls similar in age, gender and smoking exposure, researchers found that patients with bronchiectasis had increased arterial stiffness (an indicator of increased CV risk), increased inflammation, reduced exercise capacity and bone thinning (28).

2. T Hemoptysis
T Hemoptysis is a common complication of bronchiectasis. Patients with bronchiectasis complicated by primary hyperfibrinolysis do not respond to regular treatment for hemoptysis, which may potentially cause fatal consequences, according to the study by Department of Respiratory Diseases, Southern Medical University. (29).

3. Acute respiratory failure from bilateral broncholithiasis
There is a report of a case of acute airway obstruction secondary to bilateral broncholiths. Successful management was achieved with rigid bronchoscopy(30).

4. Endobronchial nocardiosis
There is a report of a case of endobronchial nocardiosis associated with the presence of a broncholith(31).

5. Pneumonia
There is a report of a 56-year-old woman visited our hospital in 2003 and right upper lobe pneumonia was detected with a calcified nodule that completely obstructed the right upper lobe bronchus on CT.

After admission, she spontaneously expectorated a stone. The composition of the stone was 57% calcium phosphate and 43% calcium carbonate.

Radiological findings and the composition of the stone suggested that this broncholith was calcified bronchial mucus rather than a calcified lymph node that might have perforated into the airway.

Bronchiectasis of the right B3 bronchus was observed on CT scan after lithoptysis. Although the bronchiectasis was unchanged 2 years later, she had no symptoms, such as a fever or a cough(32).

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

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