Thursday, 4 October 2018

Beetroot and Its Bioactive Chemical Ingredient Which Kill Cancer Cells Compared to Chemo Drug Doxorubicin (Adriamycin) with No Side Effects, Scientists Reveal

By Kyle J. Norton, Master of Nutrition

Scientists may have found a vegetable which processes a potency in killing cancer cells before spreading, some studies suggested.

Cancer is a class of diseases in which a group of cells growing and multiplying disordered and uncontrollable way in our body.

At the advanced stage, the invasive cancer cell can travel a distance away from the original site to infect other healthy tissues and organs via lymph or/and blood.

According to the statistic provided by the UK Cancers research, in 2012, an estimated 14.1 million new cases of cancer occurred worldwide. 

Sadly, more than 4 in ten cancers occurring worldwide are in countries at a low or medium level of Human Development Index (HDI).

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a statistic composite index of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, according to the definition.

In 2018, over 1,7 millions of new cases of cancer are diagnosed in the US, and approximately over 600,000 patients will die from the diseases.

The four most common types of cancer, occurring worldwide are lung, female breast, bowel and prostate cancer.

Early diagnosis as always is the best way to improve survival rate. Depending on types of cancer, most cancers have a 100% 5 years survival rate, if they are diagnosed at the stage of 0 and 1.

Beet is best known as the beetroot or garden beet and belong to the amaranth family. It is a perennial plant with leafy stems growing to 1–2 m tall.

Nutrients and Chemicall Constituents
1. Energy
2. Carbohydrates
3. fiber
4. Protein
5. Vitamin A
6. Beta-carotene
7. Trytophan
8. Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
9. Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
10. Niacin (Vitamin B3)
11. Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5)
12. Vitamin B6
13. Folate (Vitamin B9)
14. Vitamin C
15. Calcium
16. Iron
17. Magnesium
18. Copper
19. Phosphorus
20. Potassium
21. Zinc
22. Magnesium
23. Betacyanin
24. Betaine
25. Etc.

Besides the major chemical constituents betalains and phenolics, beetroot also contains the lesser amount of isobetanin, probetanin, neobetanin, indicaxanthin, vulgaxanthins, etc.

In the study to reaffirm the effect of red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) extract (B), approved by Food and Drug Administration and European Union as red food color E162, in reducing multi-organ tumor formations in various animal models when administered in drinking water, researchers at the Howard University launched an investigation to examine whether a long-term daily exposure to low doses of B through diet would be safe and sufficient to produce cancer chemopreventive effect in humans.

Compared to the conventional chemo drugs doxorubicin (D) with different concentrations of range from 0.29-290 μg/ml in several human cancer cell lines, researchers found that

* Application of Red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) extract (B exerts a synergistic antiproliferative activity with against pancreatic (PaCa), breast (MCF-7) and prostate (PC-3) tumor cells of human origin.

* Red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) extract (B) is considered safe for human use with no known toxicity.

* Used combined with D demonstrates an overall positive reduction of concentration od D with the same cytotoxicity profile in the three human cancer cells. In other words, the synergistic cytotoxicity was best when the B:D ratio of 1:5 was used in PaCa cells at IC50, IC75, and IC90 dose levels and in MCF-7 cells at an IC90 dose level. 

These results suggested that red beetroot extract used combined with doxorubicin may process a potency in treating human cancers.

Additionally, in the further testing of the anti-cancer effect of the red beetroot extract with the anticancer drug, doxorubicin (Adriamycin) in the androgen-independent human prostate cancer cells (PC-3) and in the well-established estrogen receptor-positive human breast cancer cells (MCF-7), researchers showed that
* Both doxorubicin and the beetroot extract exhibit a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect in the two tested cancer cell lines.

* The cytotoxicity of the beetroot extract is significantly lower, compared to doxorubicin. Application of beetroot continues to decrease the growth rate of the PC-3 cells (3.7% in 3 days vs. 12.5% in 7 days) when tested at the concentration of 29 µg/ml in compared to doxorubicin completely inhibited the growth of the PC-3 cells in three days at the same concentration.

These results indicated lesser effects of the beetroot extract in inducing cytotoxicity, compared to doxorubicin (8.6% vs. 100%, respectively, at 29 µg/ml concentration of each, three-day test period).

Further analysis of the results, researchers found that the anticancer activity may be attributed to its bioactive compound betanin, the major betacyanin constituent.

The findings suggested that beetroot and its extract with abundant phytochemicals may be considered a functional food used alone or combined with chemo drugs for the treatment of cancers without inducing any side effects.

However, further data collection on large example size and multi-centers studies performed with human consumption of the beer root extract during the course of the disease will be necessary to complete the picture of its anti-cancer possibilities.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blog, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) Synergistic cytotoxicity of red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) extract with doxorubicin in human pancreatic, breast and prostate cancer cell lines by Kapadia GJ, Rao GS, Ramachandran C, Iida A, Suzuki N, Tokuda H.((PubMed)
(2) Cytotoxic effect of the red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) extract compared to doxorubicin (Adriamycin) in the human prostate (PC-3) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cell lines by Kapadia GJ, Azuine MA, Rao GS, Arai T, Iida A, Tokuda H. (PubMed)

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