Wednesday, 31 October 2018

Carrots, The Veggie Which Balances the Ratio of ROS and Antioxidant Enzymes in Our Body

Kyle J. Norton

Scientists may have found a root vegetable with the potential for balancing the levels of antioxidants and free radicals in our body, some studies suggested.

Free radicals are oxygen molecules with unpaired electrons which are unstable and readily steal an electron from other molecules.

If the action is allowed to continuous, the process will increase the levels of radicals in overwhelming the antioxidant enzymes in the host body, leading to an imbalance of the ratio between the 2, the major cause of diseases associated to oxidative stress.

According to epidemiological studies, diseases associated with the imbalance of the levels of free radicals and antioxidants include central nervous system diseases, such as Alzheimer's and other dementias, cardiovascular disease due to clogged arteries, autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and cancer, cataracts and age-related vision and promotion of the early onset of aging.

On the other hand, antioxidants are molecules which inhibit oxidation. Therefore, they can stop the chain reaction, facilitated by the domino's function of free radicals.

Antioxidant enzymes found in our body including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH) have a significant effect in the protection of our health by inhibiting the overproduction of free radicals. 

Other nonantioxidant enzymes include thiol, ascorbic acid, and uric acid, and dietary antioxidants.

Carrots may have a profound and positive effect on reduced risk, progression and treatment of lung cancer, some scientists suggested.

Carrot, a root vegetable with an orange color is a subspecies of Daucus carota, belonging to the family Apiaceae, native to Asian and Europe.

In the investigation to examine the effect of three processing units (blanching, enzyme liquefaction, and pasteurization) on polyphenols and antioxidant activity of carrot juices, including five polyphenolic acids identified in fresh carrot juice, with chlorogenic acid as the predominant compound.

Researchers at the Shaanxi Normal University found that 
* Compared with fresh carrot juice, blanching and enzyme liquefaction can increase the total polyphenol content (TPC) and the antioxidant activity in scavenging DPPH free radicals (DPPH) and Fe(2+)-chelating capacity (FC), whereas pasteurization could result in the decrease of the TPC and the antioxidant activity in DPPH and FC.

* The blanching, enzyme liquefaction, and pasteurization showed little influence on the antioxidant activity in lipid peroxidation protection.

* The antioxidant activities in DPPH and FC increased with the increased concentration while no correlation between lipid peroxidation protection and polyphenols concentration.

Additionally, in the study to examine the carotenoids effect in acting as antioxidants and protecting humans from serious disorders such as skin degeneration and aging, cardiovascular disease, certain types of cancer, and age-related diseases of the eye, researchers at the Gyeongsang National University, launched an evaluation of the chemopreventive activities of a carotenoids-overexpressing transgenic carrot.

According to the DPPH, hydroxyl, and superoxide radical scavenging tests, the acetone extract obtained from the taproots of the carrot plants exhibits significant antioxidant activity.

A higher activity was detected in the transgenic carrot extract compared with the wild-type extract. And A chemopreventive activity test for degenerative diseases of the eye revealed that pretreatment with the carrot extract reduces cell death in a retinal ganglion cell line,

More importantly, purple carrot (PC), the potential dietary constituent, was found to process antioxidant activity in modulating the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in the gastrointestinal tract.

By analyzing the antioxidant capacity of a PC extract in the digestion process simulated in the artificial alimentary tract, including the stomach, small intestine, and colon, through the normal human cells of colon mucosa, researchers discovered
* The extract obtained upon passage through the gastrointestinal tract which could come into contact with the colonic cells in situ, was less potent than the extract direct injection,

* Digested PC extract exhibited intracellular ROS-inhibitory capacity with 1mg/mL in increasing ROS clearance by 18.4%. and  20.7% in oxidative DNA damage.

All studies included in the article suggested that carrot regardless of processing processes a significant activity in inhibiting the free radicals before they can induce oxidative stress in the facilitation of chronic diseases.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) Antioxidant effects of gastrointestinal digested purple carrot extract on the human cells of colonic mucosa by Olejnik A1, Rychlik J2, Kidoń M3, Czapski J3, Kowalska K2, Juzwa W2, Olkowicz M2, Dembczyński R2, Moyer MP4(PubMed)
(2) Influence of technical processing units on polyphenols, and antioxidant capacity of carrot(Daucus carrot L.) juice by Ma T1, Tian C, Luo J, Zhou R, Sun X, Ma J.(PubMed)
(3) Enhanced antioxidant and protective activities on retinal ganglion cells of carotenoids-overexpressing transgenic carrot by Yoon KD1, Kang SN, Bae JY, Lee HS, Kwak SS, Jang I, Kim IS, Lee CH, Bae JM, Lee SW, Ahn MJ(PubMed)

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