Scientists may have found a popular beverage that processes a significant effect in reducing risk and treatment of endometrial cancer, according to some studies.
Endometrial cancer is a medical condition characterized by cell growth uncontrollably in the endometrium.
At the late stage, the cancerous cell may travel a distance away from the original site to infect other organs and tissues.
Some researchers suggested that endometrial cancer is not caused by a single factor but a number of conditions.
Women who have a persistent irregular ovulation pattern due to conditions of polycystic ovary syndrome, obesity, and diabetes are associated with the higher risk of the disease.
The risk of endometrial cancer is also increased in women who are taking hormone therapy after menopause, containing estrogen.
Green tea, a precious drink processed numbers of health benefit is known to almost everyone in Asia and the Western world.
In the experiment of green tea bioactive compound against the progression of tumor xenografts of human endometrial cancer, researchers found that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate EGCG demonstrates a significant effect in reduced risk of endometrial cancer development through the bioactive chemicals anti-tumor angiogenesis properties.
In fact, the anti-cancer active compound efficacy was attributed to the modulation of expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) protein in the established new vessel to stimulate the onset of cancer and cancer cell proliferation and HIF-1 functions in the activated transcription of many genes, that regulate cellular and systemic homeostatic response to external changes to tumor growth.
Furthermore, application of EGCG also suppressed responses of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (CXCL12) in expression of multiple physiological processes, promoted invasion and metastasis of tumor cells in connected tissues of the uterine mucosa (endometrium), thus reducing the infiltration of VEGFA-expressing tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in supplying rapidly growing malignant tissues with essential nutrients and oxygen.
Additionally, further analysis also insisted that EGCG restricted secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) in initiated endometrial cancer growth by inhibiting the function of PI3K/AKT/mTOR/HIF1α pathway in the regulation of many cellular processes, including cell survival, proliferation, and growth.
After taking account all findings, treatment with EGCG reduced risk of endometrial cancer onset may be results of EGCG suppressed secretion in both fronts, the decreased cancer cell-secreted VEGFA and inhibited TAM-secreted VEGFA in endometrial cancer progression.
Further differentiation, also showed that green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate reduced cancer expansion by suppressing the expression of proliferation markers which act indirectly to stimulate endometrial epithelial proliferation in estrogen receptor α, progesterone receptor, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cyclin D1.
The overexpression of cyclin D1 has linked to the development and progression of cancer.
The proliferating cell nuclear antigen is a protein with the function of cell cycle regulation and/or DNA replication and DNA synthesis and DNA repair.
Importantly, the inhibition of EGCG also decreased the activation of ERK, the extracellular signal-regulated kinases protein in cancer cell division and down expression of transcription factors fos and jun, the cellular immediate-early genes in the induced transient cancer cell division and differentiation processes.
The function of EGCG in reduced risk of endometrial cancer also expressed through Bcl-2-associated X protein, cleavage of caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase actions in the induction of cancer cell apoptosis and suppression of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2).
Bcl-2-associated X is a protein with the function of anti- or pro-apoptotic regulators involved in a wide variety of cellular activities.
B-cell lymphoma 2, a family protein with function in the regulation of cell apoptosis.
Cleavage of caspase-3 also is known as a critical executioner of apoptosis,
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase is a protein with function involved in a number of cellular processes, including programmed cell death.
Implicitly, application of EGCG also increased production of free radical expression in the initiated cytotoxic effect by reducing levels of antioxidant glutathione levels and activating the p38 in the induction of cancer cells death without inducing toxicity to normal cells
P38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are activated by a wide range of cellular stresses in the response to inflammatory cytokines involved in cell differentiation, apoptosis, and autophagy.
Indeed, according to a systematic review of literature published on database of PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and China Biological Medicine Database up to February 2, 2015, researchers indicated that green tea consumption is associated with a reduced risk of EC (relative risk of .78) and each additional cup of green tea consumed per day decreased risk of developing EC by 11%.
Particularly, the intake of green tea associated with the attenuated risk of endometrial cancer was 84.33% compared to 5.07 % of black tea.
Taken together, green tea and its polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate EGCG may be considered a functional food used conjunction with standard therapy in reducing risk and treatment of endometrial cancer.
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Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) Green tea, black tea consumption, and risk of endometrial cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis by Zhou Q1, Li H2, Zhou JG3, Ma Y4, Wu T5, Ma H6.(PubMed)
(2) A prodrug of green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (Pro-EGCG) serves as a novel angiogenesis inhibitor in endometrial cancer by Wang J1, Man GCW2, Chan TH3, Kwong J1, Wang CC4. (PubMed)
(3) (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate induces apoptosis in human endometrial adenocarcinoma cells via ROS generation and p38 MAP kinase activation by Manohar M1, Fatima I, Saxena R, Chandra V, Sankhwar PL, Dwivedi A.(PubMed)