Also in bacterial experiments, according to the observation from bacteria mutation assays, trigonelline, found in caffeine alone or in combination with most of the single amino acids found in caffeine and mixtures of amino acids, showed a potent mutagenic activity in Salmonella typhimurium strains.
Additionally, according to the coffee producing company, Nestlé Research Center, coffee intake has shown a strong effect in the exhibition of the function of enzymes involved in xenobiotic detoxification processes and primary hepatocytes.
In animal study, the experiment also found that coffee induces the mRNA and protein expression of enzymes involved in the promotion of cellular antioxidant defenses.
More importantly, coffee also exhibited chemoprotective effects of against toxic Aflatoxin B1 in the induction of genotoxicity in either human liver cell line and primary hepatocytes.
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Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299
(1) Potential genotoxic, mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of coffee: a review by Nehlig A1, Debry G.(PubMed)
(2) Trigonelline, a naturally occurring constituent of green coffee beans behind the mutagenic activity of roasted coffee? by Wu X1, Skog K, Jägerstad M.(PubMed)
(3) Induction of Nrf2-mediated cellular defenses and alteration of phase I activities as mechanisms of chemoprotective effects of coffee in the liver by Cavin C1, Marin-Kuan M, Langouët S, Bezençon C, Guignard G, Verguet C, Piguet D, Holzhäuser D, Cornaz R, Schilter B.(PubMed)