Saturday, 6 October 2018

#Coffee, The Beverage Which Protects Human Cells DNA Against Mutagenesis, Scientists Suggested

By Kyle J. Norton, Master of Nutrition

Caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee intake may have a profound effect in protecting the human healthy cell against mutagens in alternating cell DNA transcripts, some studies suggested.

Mutagenicity is an action characterized by the alternation of the DNA chemically or physically.

In most cases, mutagenicity, in human expressed by mutagens are associated with the onset of irregular cells, causing various types of cancer.

Coffee, second to green tea, is a popular and social beverage all over the world, particularly in the West, made from roasted bean from the Coffea plant, native to the tropical Africa and Madagascar.

In the study of caffeine effect in mutagenesis, coffee and caffeine showed a significant effect in gene mutation in bacteria and fungi, but in high concentrations, they can also express a similarly mutagenic influence to mammalian cells.

In other words, the application of coffee and caffeine can induce the change of the DNA of bacteria, virus, and fungi and human cultured cells 

In the microbial environment, the change of DNA sometimes can increase the survival of the microorganisms in adapting to the change of environment. The results can make them more lethal than the previous form.

The findings suggested the duo effect of coffee and caffeine, on one hand, inhibited the gene mutation but on the hand displayed a significant mutagenic DNA damage to living organisms, but less inhuman even with a moderated drinking habit.

Also in bacterial experiments, according to the observation from bacteria mutation assays, trigonelline, found in caffeine alone or in combination with most of the single amino acids found in caffeine and mixtures of amino acids, showed a potent mutagenic activity in Salmonella typhimurium strains.

The mutagenic activity of caffeine can be observed through its potentiate in inducing chromosomal aberrations through transforming sublethal damage of mutagenic agents into lethal damage. 

Furthermore, the study also revealed that chemically reactive components such as aliphatic dicarbonyls from the caffeine were some of the culprits attributed to this mutagenic exhibition.

But conversely, according to the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, intake of caffeinated coffee demonstrated a protective effect in inhibiting these mutagenic activities through theirs' numerous chemicals depending on the time consumption in the presence of the mutagenic agent.

Dr. Wu X, the lead author said, "Trigonelline and amino acids are natural components in green coffee beans. Model systems mimicking coffee roasting were used to produce heated samples of trigonelline, amino acids, and glucose".

Additionally, according to the coffee producing company, Nestlé Research Center, coffee intake has shown a strong effect in the exhibition of the function of  enzymes involved in xenobiotic detoxification processes and primary hepatocytes. 

In animal study, the experiment also found that coffee induces the mRNA and protein expression of enzymes involved in the promotion of cellular antioxidant defenses.

More importantly, coffee also exhibited chemoprotective effects of against toxic Aflatoxin B1 in the induction of genotoxicity in either human liver cell line and primary hepatocytes.

The in-depth comparison of all studies above suggested caffeine has an effect in the contribution of gene mutation in microorganisms, while intake of caffeinated coffee expresses an opposite effect in the protection of gene in human.

Taking all together, caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee may be considered a functional beverage for protection of our body cells against alternation of DNA transcription in the initiation of cancers.


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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299

Sources

(1) Potential genotoxic, mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of coffee: a review by Nehlig A1, Debry G.(PubMed)
(2) Trigonelline, a naturally occurring constituent of green coffee beans behind the mutagenic activity of roasted coffee? by Wu X1, Skog K, Jägerstad M.(PubMed)
(3) Induction of Nrf2-mediated cellular defenses and alteration of phase I activities as mechanisms of chemoprotective effects of coffee in the liver by Cavin C1, Marin-Kuan M, Langouët S, Bezençon C, Guignard G, Verguet C, Piguet D, Holzhäuser D, Cornaz R, Schilter B.(PubMed)