Thursday, 18 October 2018

Papaya, The Fruit Which Protects Our Body Against Acute and Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

By Kyle J. Norton, Master of Nutrition

Papaya is found to process anti acute and chronic inflammatory activity that may be considered an adjunct therapy for treatment of several chronic diseases, some scientists suggested

Inflammation is the natural response of the immune system macrophages, the first line of defense in stimulating the production of inflammatory cytokines to protect our body against the infection caused by foreign microorganisms during the acute phase of body damage and injury.

Any inflammation that lasts more than 3 months is considered chronic inflammation.

Truly, the main focus of inflammation is to repair damage and injury.

However, overexpression of inflammatory cytokines in most cases can cause improper healing with scar formation or the death of nearby cells.

Chronic inflammation is the results of the immune system inability to kill off all the microorganism participated in the acute phase of infection, leading to the forming of autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases such as RA and diabetes.

Inflammation is also can be caused by overexpression of free radical compared to the antioxidant enzymes in the body. This result can lead to an imbalance of the ratio of the levels of free radicals and antioxidant, the major cause of oxidative stress.

Longer-term oxidative stress in the body can also cause oxidative damage to biomolecules, including lipids, proteins, DNA that initiate the development of numbers of chronic diseases, such as atherosclerosis, cancer, diabetics, rheumatoid arthritis, post-ischemic perfusion injury, myocardial infarction.

Papaya is a species of Carica Papaya, belonging to the family Caricaceae and native to the tropics of the Americas, and was first cultivated in Mexico and several centuries

Chemical constituents
Alkaloids, Cardenolides, Anthraquinones, Saponins, Tannin, phenol, flavonoid, anthocyanin, Benzyl glucosinolate, benzylisothiocyanate, 5-(Hydroxymethyl)-2-furancarboxaldehyde, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one and 1,3-dihydroxy-2-propanone, etc.(a)

In the reaffirm fruit and vegetables have therapeutic potential as they dampen inflammation with no known side-effects, researchers at the Universiti Putra Malaysia launched an evaluation to examine the effect of papaya on the activity of Th1 (IFN-γ(+) CD4(+))/Th2 (IL-4(+)CD4(+)) T cells play in mediating inflammatory responses.
According to the flow cytometry methods. application of papaya exerted a potential effect in down-regulation of IFN-γ(+) CD4(+) (p=0.03, n=13) in the expression of inflammatory markers and up-regulation of IL-4(+) CD4(+) (p=0.04, n=13) T cells, CD3(+) CD4(+) CD25(+) CD127(-) in productiuon of anti inflammatroy sytokines.

Tregs, regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a specialized subpopulation of T cells that act to suppress the immune response in the production of the proteins related to inflammation, were found after papaya consumption.

In vitro cultures, papaya up-regulates Tregs in male subjects and was significantly associated with suppression of the levels of IL-1β and other inflammatory cytokines.

Dr. Abdullah M., the lead author said, "Papaya consumption may exert an anti-inflammatory response mediated through Tregs and have potential in alleviating inflammatory conditions".

Furthermore, in the reconfirmation of papaya anti-inflammatory effect in patients with sepsis, a serious unbalanced hyperinflammatory condition, researchers found that pretreatment of mangiferin (MF), a natural glucosyl xanthone found in papaya inhibits sepsis-activated mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells signaling, the mediators with function in stimulated the production of  in elevated inflammatory cytokines.

Moreover, MF dose-dependently also up-regulates the expression and activity of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 which plays a critical role in the prevention of vascular inflammation in the lung of septic mice, leading to the elimination of the septic lung injury.

The findings suggested that MF attenuates sepsis by up-regulation of HO-1 that protects against sepsis-induced ALI through inhibiting inflammatory signaling and proinflammatory mediators

Taken all together, papaya and its bioactive compound mangiferin (MF)  may be an adjunct therapy combined with conventional medicine for treatment in acute and chronic inflammatory diseases.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(a) Chemical composition and bioactivity of dried fruits and honey of Ficus carica cultivars Dottato, San Francesco and Citrullara by Loizzo MR1, Bonesi M, Pugliese A, Menichini F, Tundis R.(PubMed)
(1) Carica papayaincreases regulatory T cells, and reduces IFN-γ+ CD4+ T cells in healthy human subjects by Abdullah M1, Chai PS, Loh CY, Chong MY, Quay HW, Vidyadaran S, Seman Z, Kandiah M, Seow HF. (PubMed)
(2) Anti-inflammatory effects of mangiferin on sepsis-induced lung injury in mice via up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 by Gong X1, Zhang L, Jiang R, Ye M, Yin X, Wan J.(PubMed)

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