Thursday, 18 October 2018

Green Tea and its Bioactive Polyphenols Suppress the Onset and Progression of Osteoporosis, Medline Studies Find

By Kyle J. Norton, Master of Nutrition

Green tea may have a therapeutic and positive effect in reducing the onset, progression, and treatment of osteoporosis, some scientists suggested.

Osteoporosis is a chronic condition characterized by progression in the reduction of bone mass and deterioration of bone tissue and considered a major health problem in both elderly men and women.

The diseases also affect all bone in the body, including the bones of the spine, hip, and wrist

Scientists as of today do not know the exact causes of osteoporosis. However, they do know that certain factors are associated with the onset and progression of the disease.

Osteoporosis is the common disease among the elderly, probably due to the aging effect that induces nutrition deficiency such as
* Vitamin D insufficiency and reduced calcium absorption,

*  Reduced hormone production, the drop of estrogen levels after menopause, can speeds up bone loss.

* Reduced production of bone mass and increased bone reabsorption.

These results suggested that osteoporosis can make bone more fragile and easier to break. In elderly, osteoporosis can be dangerous, as fractures can cause prolonged immobility, and required a longer healing process.

Some researchers suggested that fractures in the older population are the most common cause of blood clots or pneumonia, both of which can have fatal consequences.

Long-term use of certain medicines, such as anti-seizure drug Glucocorticoids and medical conditions such as kidney disease, Cushing's syndrome, and an overactive thyroid or parathyroid, can also increase the risk of osteoporosis.

Dr. Stephen P Tuck, the lead author in the study Osteoporosis in men said, "The incidence of osteoporotic fractures in elderly men, just as in aged women, increases exponentially with age; the rise in men, however, is some 5–10 years later than in women. Up to 50% of male osteoporosis have no identifiable etiology; however elderly males have a much higher likelihood of having an identifiable secondary cause than younger men".

Truly, both male and female share the same conditions of the onset of osteoporosis, but the onset of the disease in men is about 10 years later, compared to a woman in the same age.

Interestingly, in the observation of hip fracture in the aging population, Dr. Eric Orwoll, a physician-researcher who studies osteoporosis at Oregon Health and Science University wrote, “A third of all hip fractures occur in men, yet the problem of osteoporosis in men is frequently downplayed or ignored.”

Green tea is a precious drink processes numbers of health benefit known to almost everyone in Asia and the Western world.

In the study to evaluate the effects of ingestion of green tea and green tea bioactive compounds in mitigating bone loss and risk of osteoporotic fractures in both elderly women and men, researchers found that the applications exert significant activities in reducing the onset of osteoporosis, through their antioxidants and initiation of the production of natural antioxidant in the body such as glutathione and enzymes (e.g., catalase and superoxide dismutase) in inhibiting the levels of ROS that facilitate the chain reaction.

Truly, the overexpression of free radicals has been associated with the change in the balance between activities of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, leading to osteoclasts in destroying the calcified tissue and inducing bone remodeling.

These results demonstrated that green tea and its bioactive components exhibit a significant decrease in the risk of fracture by improving bone mineral density and preventing free radicals in damage the bone-forming osteoblasts while suppressing osteoclastic activities.

Moreover, in the review of the effect of green tea and its bioactive components on bone health, researchers indicated that the ingestions display an impressive osteoprotective impact on bone mass and microarchitecture in various bone loss models associated with aging, sex hormone deficiency, and chronic inflammation.

The implication of reduced onset and progression of osteoporosis in the aging population due to sex hormone deficiency may be attributed to green tea and its bioactive compound in increasing the levels of osteocalcin, a bone formation marker, decreasing serum of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), a bone resorption marker and improving the body in the absorption of calcium.

In fact, the serum levels of osteocalcin (OC) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) are considered effective measurements in the rate of bone turn over in patients with osteoporosis.

Interestingly, application of green tea and its bioactive compound also is found to modulate the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in the regulation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, through inhibiting the production of C-reactive protein (CRP) in the liver in initiating inflammation and reducing levels of interleukin-1 and 6(IL-1-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), the sensitive markers of systemic inflammation.

These differentiation were supported by the study in the evaluation of the efficacy of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) at mitigating bone loss and microstructure deterioration along with related mechanisms in 40 androgen-deficient aged male rats, a model of male osteoporosis, randomly assigned to received A 2 (sham vs. orchidectomy) × 2 (no GTP and 0.5% GTP in drinking water) for 16 weeks.

At the end of experiment, researchers found that rats treated with GTP demonstrate an increased serum osteocalcin concentrations, bone mineral density, and trabecular volume, number, and strength of femur; trabecular volume and thickness and bone formation in both the proximal tibia and periosteal tibial shaft, and decreased eroded surface in the proximal tibia and endocortical tibial shaft; and increased liver glutathione peroxidase activity.

The findings indicated a strong implication of green tea polyphenols in decreasing cortical and trabecular bone loss and increasing both bone density by stimulating the overexpression of bone formation and reducing bone resorption via antioxidant capacity.

Taken together, green tea and its bioactive polyphenols may be considered functional foods in ameliorating early onset, progression and combined with standard medicine for treatment of osteoporosis.

However, intake of green tea supplement should be taken with extreme care due to recent reports of acute liver toxicity.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Green tea and bone metabolism by Shen CL1, Yeh JK, Cao JJ, Wang JS. (PubMed)
(2) Green tea and bone health: Evidence from laboratory studies by Shen CL1, Yeh JK, Cao JJ, Chyu MC, Wang JS. (PubMed)
(3) Supplementation with green tea polyphenols improves bone microstructure and quality in aged, orchidectomized rats by Shen CL1, Cao JJ, Dagda RY, Tenner TE Jr, Chyu MC, Yeh JK. (PubMed)
(4) Osteoporosis in the aging male: Treatment option by Stephen P Tuck1 and Harish K Datta. (PubMed)

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