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Coffee consumption may have a linear association to potential risk of bladder cancer development,
a respectable institute postulated.
Bladder cancer is medical condition of cell growth irregularly and disorderly in the bladder. The cancer may spread to distant tissues and organs in the later stage.
Coffee, a popular and social beverage all over the world, particularly in the West, is a drink made from roasted bean from the Coffea plant, native to tropical Africa and Madagascar.
According to the Shandong University, in the review literature published online satisfied the criteria and guideline to investigate risk of bladder cancer among coffee consumption adults. Selected studies, numbers of cups/day and relative risk RR as follow
For 23 case-control studies
1. for 1 cup/day, RR=1.07
2 for 2 cups/day, RR=1.15
3 for 3 cups/day, RR=1.22
4. for 4 cups/day RR= 1.29
For 5 cohort studies
1. for 1 cup/day, RR=1.09
2. for 2 cups/day, RR=1.13
3. for 3 cups/day, RR= 1.09
4 for 4 cups/day, RR=1.01
The findings in both case-control and cohost studies showed a positive association of coffee intake and risk of bladder cancer.
Dr. Sala M, the lead author said, "Nonsmokers who are heavy coffee drinkers may have a small excess risk of bladder cancer".
in compared to non drinkers(RR: relative risk ratio)
1. RR 1.2 for one cup of coffee per day,
2. RR 1.4 for two,
3. RR 1.5 for three and
4 RR 1.4 for four or more
5. RR 1.5 (0.9-2.4) for decaffeinated coffee.
But in never smoked participants, the risk of bladder cancer increased significantly
1 .RR 1.9 for one or two cups per day,
2. RR 1.8 for three and
3 RR 1.5 for four or more
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(1) A dose-response meta-analysis of coffee consumption and bladder cancer by Zhou Y1, Tian C, Jia C.(PubMed)
(2) Coffee consumption and bladder cancer in nonsmokers: a pooled analysis of case-control studies in European countries by Sala M1, Cordier S, Chang-Claude J, Donato F, Escolar-Pujolar A, Fernandez F, González CA, Greiser E, Jöckel KH, Lynge E, Mannetje A, Pohlabeln H, Porru S, Serra C, Tzonou A, Vineis P, Wahrendorf J, Boffetta P, Kogevina M.(PubMed)
(3) Coffee consumption and bladder cancer risk by D'Avanzo B1, La Vecchia C, Franceschi S, Negri E, Talamini R, Buttino I.(PubMed)