Sunday, 19 November 2017

Food Therapy: Coffee, The Anti Edema Therapeutic Beverage

By Kyle J. Norton

Good news for coffee drinkers, coffee may have a potential effect in reduced risk and treatment of edema, a recent study suggested.

Edema is a condition characterized by excess fluid retained in body's tissues, inducing swelling.

Coffee, becoming a popular and social beverage all over the world, particularly in the West, is a drink made from roasted bean from the Coffea plant, native to tropical Africa and Madagascar.

According to the joint study lead by the Kyung Hee University, chlorogenic acid (CGA) isolated from coffee exerted protective effects of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo) rat model in ameliorated brain infarct volume and brain water content.

Chlorogenic acid (CGA) found abundantly in roasted coffee through expression of ester of caffeic acidand (−)-quinic acid, is an powerful antioxidant with profound effect in induced weight loss and edema.

Middle cerebral artery is a carotid artery supplied blood to the brain region involved the primary motor and sensory areas of the face, throat, hand and arm, and in the dominant hemisphere, the areas for speech.

The protective effect in reduced on ischemia-induced neuronal damage and brain attributed to dihydrocaffeic acid (DHCA), formed in metabolism of CGA in inhibited enzymes involved in the degradation of the extracellular matrix, namely MMP2 and MMP-9. in providing structural and biochemical support to the surrounding cells.

Dihydrocaffeic acid (DHCA) is a metabolite of caffeic acid with potent antioxidant properties.

Matrix metalloproteinase-2  and 9, (MMP-2 - 9) are enzymes with function in activated extracellular matrix (ECM), a collection of extracellular molecules secreted by cells to support the structure of cell. Over expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 are found to associate to increased risk of disease progression, including arthritis and cancers.

In a rat model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, CGA directly showed a significantly reduced brain water content, by the inhibitory effects on MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities.

The study also addressed that the attenuation of brain edema may also be resulted by the chemical compound's anti lipid peroxidation (LPO) activity through increased antioxidant expression.

Lipid peroxidation (LPO) is a free radical-related process occurred under enzymatic control, through the activity of oxidative degradation of lipids.

Other study in the investigation of anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan, PGE(2) and serotonin-induced hind paw edema and 12-O-tetradecanoyl-13-acetate (TPA)-induced mouse ear edema models, chlorogenic acid (CGA), also exerted a significant anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity against serotonin-induced hind paw edema and TPA-induced mouse ear edema, researchers at the Gazi University postulated.

Carrageenan is a mixture of polysaccharides extracted from red and purple seaweeds.

Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a conventional medicine used for treatment of pain and inflammation in numbers of disease, including rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.

12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate is one of chemical compound used in experiment to induce endogenous superoxide production. In other word, it is a chemical used routinely in enhanced free radical expression for researcher in animal models.

Finally, researchers in the concerns of the caffeine in reduced risk of edema strongly insisted that injection of caffeine induced diminution in the amount of edema in the body cavities was a result of an inhibition of the production of edema and not to an increased absorption of fluid from the serous body cavities.

The findings suggested that coffee may be used as functional and therapeutic beverage for reduced risk and treatment of edema, more studies are necessary to confirm the promising validity.

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Kyle J. Norton, Master of Nutrients
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Protective Effects of Dihydrocaffeic Acid, a Coffee Component Metabolite, on a Focal Cerebral Ischemia Rat Model by Lee K1, Lee BJ2, Bu Y3.(PubMed)
(2) Chlorogenic acid ameliorates brain damage and edema by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinase-2 and 9 in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia by Lee K1, Lee JS, Jang HJ, Kim SM, Chang MS, Park SH, Kim KS, Bae J, Park JW, Lee B, Choi HY, Jeong CH, Bu Y.(PubMed)
(3) Ethnopharmacological evaluation of some Scorzonera species: in vivo anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects by Küpeli Akkol E1, Bahadır Acıkara O, Süntar I, Ergene B, Saltan Çitoğlu G.(PubMed)

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