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Wednesday, 1 January 2014

Food therapy - Strawberries and Atherosclerosis

Strawberries
Strawberries is a genius of Fragaria × ananassa belongs to the family Roseaceae. They have been grown all over the world with suitable climate for commercial profits and for health benefits.
Beside cancer, heart disease kills more than 2,000 Americans everyday. Approximately 60 million Americans have heart disease.
There are many causes of heart diseases. Most of heart diseases are caused by high blood pressure contributes to hardening of the arteries. High levels of bad cholesterol (LDL) build up in the arteries as a result of uncontrolled diet with high levels of saturated fat and trans fat. All these add to the formation of atherosclerosis lesions and eventually arterial blockage or anything that serves to damage the inner lining of blood vessels and impedes the transportation of oxygen and nutrition to the heart can be defined as a risk of heart disease.
Atherosclerosis is defined as a condition of wall thickens or hardening of the arteries.
Nutrients and Chemicals constituents
1. Carbohydrate
2. Dietary fiber
3. Omega 3 fatty acid
4. Calcium
5. Iron
6. Magnesium
7. Phosphorus
8. Potassium
9. Sodium
10. Zinc
11. Copper
12. Manganese
13. Selenium
14. Vitamin C
15. Thiamin
16. Niacin
17. Pantothenic acid
18. Vitamin B-6
19. Folate
20. Vitamin B-12
21. Vitamin A
22. Vitamin E
23. Vitamin K
24. Etc. 
The major chemical compounds include anthocyanin and ellagitannins and p-Hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid, ellagic acid, cyanidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3-glucoside, kaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin 
 
The benefits
Phytochemicals anthocyanin and ellagitannins as the antioxidants have played role played  on fruit absorption, metabolism, and the possible beneficial biological activity on human health, including heart diseases. In subjects with type 2 diabetes: a randomized double-blind controlled trial, freeze-dried strawberry (FDS) improved glycemic control and antioxidant status, and reduced lipid peroxidation and inflammatory response in patients with T2D. Supplementation with freeze-dried berry products, as natural sources of antioxidants with low glycemic index, could be considered as an adjunctive therapy in ameliorating metabolic complications and short-term freeze-dried strawberry supplementation improved selected atherosclerotic risk factors, including dyslipidemia and circulating adhesion molecules in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Other study also indicated of supporting therapeutic roles of strawberries in metabolic syndrome, a prediabetic state characterized by several cardiovascular risk factors as it is found of lowering total and LDL-cholesterol, but not triglycerides, and decreasing surrogate biomarkers of atherosclerosis (malondialdehyde and adhesion molecules).
The Side effects 
1. Some people may be experience anaphylactoid reaction to the consumption of strawberries
2. Oxalation
Oxalates in high concentration can cause problem for people with kidney diseases.
3. Etc.

Reference
(1) The strawberry: composition, nutritional quality, and impact on human health. by Giampieri F, Tulipani S, Alvarez-Suarez JM, Quiles JL, Mezzetti B, Battino M.(PubMed)
(2) Phenolic Composition of Strawberry Genotypes at Different Maturation Stages(ACS Publication)
(3) Effects of freeze-dried strawberry supplementation on metabolic biomarkers of atherosclerosis in subjects with type 2 diabetes: a randomized double-blind controlled trial. by Moazen S, Amani R, Homayouni Rad A, Shahbazian H, Ahmadi K, Taha Jalali M.(PubMed)
(4) Strawberries decrease atherosclerotic markers in subjects with metabolic syndrome.
(5) Strawberries, Blueberries, and Cranberries in the Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Perspectives.