Thursday, 9 January 2014

Herbal Anise and Antifungal activity

Anise is a flowering plant ofthe species of Pimpinella anisum, genus Pimpinella, belonging to the family Apiaceae native to to Egypt and the Mediterranean region. The popular herb has been used in traditional herbal medicine as fragrance in soaps, oils, and mouth fresheners and stomachic, anti-septic, anti-spasmodic, carminative, digestive, expectorant, stimulant and tonic agent to treat head-lice and mites, increase blood pressure, prevent formation of gas in the gastrointestinal tract and menstrual cramps, etc.
Candida albicans is a member of a large group of organism whose cells contain complex structures enclosed within the membranes, including yeast and mold that live among the gut flora in the human mouth and gastrointestinal tract. In fact, under normal circumstances, Candida albicans that does cause harmful effects, but overgrowth results in candidiasis.

Beside the main ingredient Anethole, it also contains, D-pinene, I-phellandrene, Alpha-terpineol, Safrol, Methyl chavicol, Resin, Shikimic acid, etc.

The Benefits
P-anisaldehyde (1), o-anisaldehyde (2)  found in anise is found to process the anti fungal activity against Candida, including azole-resistant strains, advocating further investigation for clinical applications in the treatment of fungal infections. In other study, anise fruits Pimpinella anisum L. (Apiaceae) extract showed antimycotic activity against Candida albicans and inhibited the growth of dermatophyte species (Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis and M. gypseum). Anise essential oil also  exhibited stronger antifungal activities against yeasts and dermatophytes with MIC values between 0.10 and 1.56%.

The Side Effects 1. If you have high blood pressure or pregnant please consult with your doctor or related field specialist before applying.
2. Star Anise is toxic.
3. Skin Irritation
4. Allergic reaction such as mouth and lip inflammation.
5. Etc.

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(1) "[Apparent life-threatening event in infants: think about star anise intoxication!].[Article in French] by Perret C, Tabin R, Marcoz JP, Llor J, Cheseaux JJ.,  (PubMed)
(2) Interesting anticandidal effects of anisic aldehydes on growth and proton-pumping-ATPase-targeted activity by Shreaz S, Bhatia R, Khan N, Ahmad SI, Muralidhar S, Basir SF, Manzoor N, Khan LA.(PubMed)
(3) Antifungal activity of fluid extract and essential oil from anise fruits (Pimpinella anisum L., Apiaceae) by Kosalec I, Pepeljnjak S, Kustrak D.(PubMed)