Thursday, 27 December 2018

Sulforaphane (Isothiocyanates), the Neuroprotective Plant Base Bioactive Compound

By Kyle J. Norton

Dithiolthiones, the bioactive compound found abundantly in the cruciferous vegetables may have a potential effect on reducing the risk of neurodegenerative disease, some scientists found.

Dithiolthiones are phytochemicals in the class of Organosulfides, found abundantly in cruciferous vegetables, garden sorrel, horseradish, etc.

A neurodegenerative disease is a group of conditions which primarily affect the neurons in the brain, including Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease.

In other words, a neurodegenerative disease is caused by the progressive death of neurons in different regions of the nervous system. 

The progressive loss of neurons induced neurological and neuropsychological signs and symptoms have also been found in comparison to the stage of disease onset of patients.

The causes of neurodegenerative diseases are unknown,  However, researchers do know that the increase in age is one most consistent risk factor for developing a neurodegenerative disease, especially AD or PD, as the disease has been found over 60% in the population aged 65 and beyond compared to another group.

And this numbers is found to increase at the alarming rate. Dr. Serge Przedborski, the lead author in the investigate the risk of neurodegenerative disease in elderly said, "it can be anticipated that, over the next generations, the proportion of elderly citizens will double, and, with this, possibly the proportion of persons suffering from some kind of neurodegenerative disorder".

Epidemiologically, geographical, hereditary and viral and toxicological exposure correlates and deficiencies of elements such as calcium and selenium are some of the risk factors in the development of neurological diseases.

Also, people who follow the Western diet pattern are at the increased risk of the disease. According to the 2018 Alzheimer's Association International Conference, July 22-26, 2018 in Chicago, Illinois, the Western diet is known to include high consumption of red meats, processed meats, as well as fatty and fried foods. This dietary pattern has been linked to a greater risk of cognitive decline and dementia.

As the autopsied participants' brains followed the Western diet showed a significant change of neuropathologies such as β-amyloid plaques, tau tangle density, neocortical Lewy bodies, cerebral atherosclerosis, among others.

This analysis may indicate that by changing to a healthy diet with a high in fruits and vegetables and whole grain and less in saturated and trans fat, red meat and processed foods, the risk of neurodegenerative disease can be reduced substantially.

Researchers on the finding a natural ingredient or whole food investigated the epidemiologically suggested that sulforaphane, an organosulfur compound present in cruciferous vegetables processed neuroprotective effects in experimental in vitro and in vivo models of neurodegeneration. Using the Morris water maze researchers tested the sulforaphane effects on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice.

Sulforaphane (10 or 50mg/kg) was administered to C57BL/6 mice by oral gavage for 14 days (days 1-14), Memory impairment was induced by intraperitoneal injection of scopolamine (1mg/kg) for 7 days (days 8-14). 

Mice receive an injection of scopolamine showed impaired learning and memory retention and considerably decreased cholinergic system reactivity in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. The results were observed by a decreased acetylcholine (ACh) level and increased acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity.

Where acetylcholine (ACh) is a neurotransmitter, associated with the function in sending signals to other cells [neurons, muscle cells, and gland cells] and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of acetylcholine.

Treatment of sulforaphane significantly attenuated the scopolamine-induced memory impairment and improved cholinergic system reactivity.

In other words, sulforaphane exerted a neuroprotective effect against the scopolamine in the induction of oxidative stress to the neurons. Sulforaphane at the doses of 10 or 20μM increased the ACh level, decreased the AChE activity, and increased ChAT expression in scopolamine-treated primary cortical neurons.

Dr. Lee S, the lead scientists suggest "Sulforaphane might exert a significant neuroprotective effect on the cholinergic deficit and cognitive impairment".

Additionally, in the concern of no drugs treatment of schematic/traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease which share common characteristics such as oxidative stress, misfolded proteins, excitotoxicity, inflammation, and neuronal loss, researchers investigated the effect of sulforaphane against the mentioned diseases.

In several in vitro and in vivo studies isothiocyanate sulforaphane, derived from the hydrolysis of the glucosinolate glucoraphanin mainly present in Brassica vegetables, has demonstrated neuroprotective effects.

The efficacy was attributed to the activity of sulforaphane in activating the Nrf2/ARE pathway in modulating the expression of oxidative stress.

Dr. Tarozzi A, the lead author in the final report of the experiment wrote, " sulforaphane appears to be a promising compound with neuroprotective properties that may play an important role in preventing neurodegeneration".

 More importantly, in dopaminergic neurotoxicity in mice induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), the phytochemical showed the neuroprotective effect through its ability to enhance the antioxidant enzymes of the host and improve neuronal survival.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Sulforaphane alleviates scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice by Lee S1, Kim J1, Seo SG2, Choi BR3, Han JS3, Lee KW4, Kim J5. (PubMed)
(2) Sulforaphane as a potential protective phytochemical against neurodegenerative diseases byTarozzi A1, Angeloni C, Malaguti M, Morroni F, Hrelia S, Hrelia P.(PubMed)
(3) Neuroprotective effect of sulforaphane in a 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned mouse model of Parkinson's disease byMorroni F1, Tarozzi A, Sita G, Bolondi C, Zolezzi Moraga JM, Cantelli-Forti G, Hrelia P.(PubMed)
(4) Series Introduction: Neurodegeneration: What is it and where are we?by Serge Przedborski,1,2,3 Miquel Vila,1 and Vernice Jackson-Lewis. (PMC)

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