Friday, 21 December 2018

Herbal Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, The Potential and Natural Antibiotics Alternative

By Kyle J. Norton

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi may be the next target to identify the single ingredient as the natural antibiotic for the treatment of bacterial infection with no side effects, some scientists suggested.

Infection is a result of pathogens entering in the human body starts to multiply. In the acute phase of infection, the white blood calls in the immune first line of defense stimulate the production of inflammatory cytokines to the site with an aim to kill off the invaded bacteria.

During the battle normally won by the immune system, the overexpression of inflammatory cytokine can cause symptoms of skin redness, swelling and fever as well as damaging to the nearby cells, leading healthy cell death and improper healing with the formation of irreversible scars.

Normally, the immune system can kill off the foreign bacteria within 3 -8 weeks. However, if the immune fails to destroy all the pathogen with that time frames, it will adapt to the change, leading chronic inflammatory diseases such as RA and diabetes.

The microorganism infection can be broken down to many stages
In the first stage, a new host is exposed to infectious particles shed by an infected individual.

*In the second stage of contact between the host and the infectious particles may be through the skin or the internal mucosal surfaces of the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urogenital tracts.

* In the stage of finding the focus site to establish infection. Most pathogens start this stage by adhering to the epithelial surface, and then colonizing it, or penetrating it to replicate in the tissues. In this stage, the foreign pathogens are at the risk to be expelled by the natural immune defenses.

Dr.Janeway CA Jr, the lead author in the article "Immunobiology: The Immune System in Health and Disease. 5th edition" wrote, "Only when a microorganism has successfully established a site of infection in the host does disease occur, and little damage will be caused unless the agent is able to spread from the original site of infection or can secrete toxins that can spread to other parts of the body".
"Extracellular pathogens spread by direct extension of the focus of infection through the lymphatics or the bloodstream.". and "Obligate intracellular pathogens must spread from cell to cell; they do so either by direct transmission from one cell to the next or by release into the extracellular fluid and reinfection of both adjacent and distant cells".

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi is one of the species of Bearberry, in the genus Arctostaphylos, belonging to the family Ericaceae, native to northern North America, Asia, and Europe.

The herb has been used in traditional medicine as a diuretic agent and to treat urinary problems, including bladder infections, kidney infection, kidney stone, pelvic pain, etc.

Herbal Arctostaphylos uva-ursi contains arbutin, ursolic acid, tannic acid, gallic acid, some essential oil and resin, hydroquinones tannins, phenolic glycosides, and flavonoids.

In the finding, a natural or natural whole for the replacement of conventional antibiotics which not only has developed resistance to most antimicrobial agents but also induce significant side effects, researchers at the University of Ottawa examine the ethanolic extracts of 14 Canadian botanicals, analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography.

Extracts of Arctostaphylos uva ursi (kinnikinnick or bearberry) inhibited the growth of all Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ng) isolated with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 32 μg/mL compared to higher doses of other botanical plants.

After comparing the antibacterial efficacy of all selected herbal plant in the study, researchers suggested that herbal Arctostaphylos uva-ursi represents a potential source of novel compounds which inhibit Ng, including isolates resistant to antibiotics.

Futhermore, in the testing, the antibacterial activity of the new discovery of two novels acylated caprylic alcohol glycosides (1, 2) isolated by Arctostaphylos pumila using the High-throughput isolation, purification, and analysis methods.

Both new compounds showed to exert a significant inhibitory effect against resistance and nonresistance bacteria.

More precisely, compounds 1 and 2 exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with a MIC of 128 microg/mL and 64 microg/mL, respectively.

The finding suggested that the extracts and a bioactive compound of Arctostaphylos uva ursi process a strong antibacterial activity similar to those of conventional antibiotics with no side effects.

However, intake of the extracts or supplement should be taken with extreme care to prevent overdoses acute toxicity.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(2) Extracts of Canadian first nations medicinal plants, used as natural products, inhibit neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates with different antibiotic resistance profiles. by Cybulska P, Thakur SD, Foster BC, Scott IM, Leduc RI, Arnason JT, Dillon JA. (PubMed)
(3) Miniaturization of the structure elucidation of novel natural products--two trace antibacterial acylated caprylic alcohol glycosides from Arctostaphylos pumila by Hu JF, Yoo HD, Williams CT, Garo E, Cremin PA, Zeng L, Vervoort HC, Lee CM, Hart SM, Goering MG, O'Neil-Johnson M, Eldridge GR.(PubMed)
(4) Immunobiology: The Immune System in Health and Disease. 5th edition by Janeway CA Jr, Travers P, Walport M, et al.

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