Friday, 7 December 2018

Allicin, the Potent and Powerful Anti Cognitive Decline Phytochemical

By Kyle J. Norton

Allicin, a bioactive and organosulfur compound may have a profound effect in improving the cognitive function in elderly, some scientists suggested.

Cognitive activity is a long-term process of reasoning, memory, attention, and language and information accumulated that lead to knowledge.

In elderly, the causes of cognitive dysfunction are associated with a set of factors, including medication side effects, metabolic and/or endocrine derangements due to aging, delirium due to intercurrent illness, depression, and dementia.

Dr. Ian M. Deutchki, MD University of Rochester, in the article What’s causing my older patient’s cognitive decline? wrote, "n primary care settings, when patients complain of memory loss, there is a 20% to 30% chance they will be found to have a mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or some level of dementia" and "Remote memory, semantic memory (factual information), and procedural memory (knowledge of skills and procedures) tend to remain intact with aging.4 Short-term memory (simple maintenance of information over a short period of time) shows little change with aging. However, working memory, which requires the manipulation of in decline".

Some researchers suggested besides the correlated factors of aging in the risk of cognitive decline, a healthy diet, and lifestyle accompanied by physical inactivity also some of the risk factors which have a significant effect in the contribution of cognitive decline.

Dr. P.J. Smith, the lead author at the Duke University Medical Center, in the concerns of cognitive decline, an increasingly important public health problem, with more than 100 million adults worldwide is associated change of lifestyle said, "lifestyle factors including dietary patterns, may be important in the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia in later life" and "antioxidants, fatty acids, and B vitamins are associated with better cognitive functioning"

This conclusion suggested that by following a healthy diet pattern, lifestyle and moderate exercise before the onset of the syndrome is one of the best methods in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases in the later life.

In elderly with the cognitive decline, Dr. María Alicia Camina suggested malnutrition is a highly prevalent geriatric syndrome in the elderly with dementia, especially in institutionalized patients and in subjects in advanced stages of the illness.

Therefore by changing the pattern of diet that target of malnutrition in the elderly, through nutritional screening and a complete nutritional assessment, the progression of cognitive decline in the elderly can be slow down.

Allicin is phytochemical containing sulfur in the class of organosulfur compound, found abundantly in onion and garlic.

Dr. Li XH, the lead scientist in the research program at the Medicine of Jishou University in the reaffirming the effect of allicin in the learning and memory abilities in the course of normal aging cognitive abilities associated with the Nrf2 expression in the decline with aging launched an investigation to assess the effects of allicin on endogenous antioxidant defenses in hippocampus of cognitively impaired aged mouse.

The organosulfur compounds, allicin activated Nrf2 during the application process by donating an electron pair to an electrophile to form a chemical bond in relation to a reaction through its electrophil·ic effect.

Treatment of allicin significantly through the expression of Nrf2 antioxidant signaling pathways ameliorated aging-induced cognitive dysfunction in the tested aged mouse.

The Nrf2 antioxidant signaling pathways are master mediators of antioxidant and detoxification responses and regulators of the cellular redox state that protects us from pathologies that are caused or exacerbated by oxidative stress in the induction of aging-related diseases, including cognitive decline.

Furthermore, the antioxidant also plays an important role in metabolic regulation and its interaction with central signaling systems that respond to nutritional inputs. These results have a strong impact in the theory associated with malnutritional effects that cause the onset of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease in the elderly.

At the final report of the experiment, the researchers wrote, "allicin could be recommended as a possible candidate for the prevention and therapy of cognitive deficits in aging and Alzheimer's disease".

In the further differentiation of the oxidative modification of DNA, proteins, and lipids associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the initiation of aging and disease, including cardiovascular, neurodegenerative and inflammatory diseases and cancer, researchers showed 
* Extracts of aged garlic extract (AGE) contain antioxidant phytochemical allicin exerts a protective activity against oxidant damage.

* Up to 20 months garlic aged extract, creates antioxidant properties that inhibit the unstable free radicals with antioxidant activity, such as allicin, that lead to a stable and highly bioavailable water-soluble organosulfur compounds.

* Allicin and other compound found in AGE inhibited the overexpression of ROS by enhancing the cellular antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase, and increasing glutathione in the cells.

* The chemical ingredients of the AGE also inhibits lipid peroxidation by reducing ischemic/reperfusion damage and inhibiting oxidative modification of LDL, thus protecting endothelial cells from the injury by the oxidized molecules, which contributes to atherosclerosis. 

More importantly, Allicin and compounds in the AGE showed the ability to protect against oxidant-induced disease, acute damage from aging, radiation and chemical exposure, and long-term toxic damage.

Taken altogether, Allicin, the major bioactive compound found in garlic and onion may be considered a functional supplement for the prevention of cognitive decline and an adjunct therapy with conventional medicine to delay the progression of neurodegenerative diseases in elderly.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Cognition (Wikipedia)
(2) Allicin ameliorates cognitive deficits aging-induced learning and memory deficits through enhancing Nrf2 antioxidant signaling pathways by Li XH, Li CY, Lu JM, Tian RB, Wei J.(PubMed)
(3) Antioxidant health effects of aged garlic extract by Borek C.(PubMed)
(4) What’s causing my older patient’s cognitive decline? by Dr. Ian M. Deutchki, MD University of Rochester,(the Journal of Family Practice)
(5) Dietary Factors and Cognitive Decline by P.J. Smith and J.A. Blumenthal. (PMC)
(6) Diet and Nutrition in Dementia and Cognitive Decline by Dr. María Alicia Camina

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