Wednesday, 19 December 2018

Avocado, the Anti Inflammatory Diseases Functional Food

By Kyle J. Norton

Intake avocado daily may have a strong effect in reducing the risk of acute and chronic inflammation, some researchers suggested.

Inflammation is a natural and systematic immune response with an aim to protect our body against the invasion of foreign pathogens.

Acute inflammation is caused by overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines which is activated the immune macrophages, a first line of the immune defense.

Chronic inflammation that lasts for several months and even year usually is the result of the immune system failing to eliminate all pathogenic invasion in the acute inflammation.

In some cases, chronic inflammation can also be caused by the immune white blood cells mistakenly attacks the body healthy tissue.

Some researchers suggested that long-term exposure to lower levels of irritants, such as industrial chemicals or polluted air may also cause chronic inflammation.

According to the statistic,  in 2000, nearly 125 million Americans were living with chronic conditions and 61 million (21%) had more than one. And these numbers are expected to increase substantially, 

More scarcely,  3 of 5 people die due to chronic inflammatory diseases like stroke, chronic respiratory diseases, heart disorders, cancer, obesity, and diabetes, worldwide.

If you experience symptoms of depression, anxiety and mood disorders, persistent gastrointestinal complications like constipation, diarrhea, and acid reflux,  weight gain, and frequent infections, you may be at the early stage of the development of chronic inflammation. Please check with your doctor to rule out the possibility.

Dr. Roma Pahwa and Dr. Ishwarlal Jialal in the article of chronic inflammation suggested that many dietary and lifestyle changes may be helpful in removing inflammation triggers and reducing chronic inflammation as listed below. The most effective is weight loss.

Avocado is commercially valuable fruit cultivated in tropical climates throughout the world. It is a green-skinned, pear-shaped fruit that ripens after harvesting and native to the Caribbean, Mexico, South America, and Central America, belonging to the flowering plant family Lauraceae.

In the finding a natural ingredient for the treatment of skin inflammation caused by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation without inducing side effects, researchers at the Granot Initiative Center conducted a study to test the ability of unique lipid molecules, polyhydroxylated fatty alcohols (PFA), extracted from avocado, to reduce UVB-induced damage and inflammation in skin.

Introducing PFA to keratinocytes prior to their exposure to UVB exerted a protective effect, increasing cell viability, decreasing the secretion of IL-6, and PGE(2), the proinflammatory cytokines and enhancing DNA repair.

In human skin explants, treating with PFA reduced significantly UV-induced cellular damage.

Furthermore, in the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effect of the combination of avocado soybean unsaponifiables (ASU) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression which is responsible for increase the inflammatory response and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production in cytokine-activated equine chondrocytes, the cells harvested from normal or OA joints .

Before application of the combination of avocado soybean unsaponifiables (ASU) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), equine chondrocytes responded to cytokine activation by up-regulated gene expression of COX-2 and increased PGE(2) production.

Application of ASU and EGCG marginally inhibited COX-2 expression and PGE(2) production in activated chondrocytes. 

The combination of ASU and EGCG reduced COX-2 expression close to non-activated control levels and significantly inhibited PGE(2) production. 

The inhibition of COX-2 expression and PGE(2) production was associated with the inhibition of NF-kappaB translocation in the regulation of cytokines and immune responses.

These results suggested that the combination may offer an attractive supplement or alternative to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in the management of osteoarthritis, a chronic inflammatory disease.

Additional study on the effects of avocado soybean unsaponifiables (ASU) on proinflammatory mediators in chondrocytes and monocyte/macrophage-like cells, researchers also found that
* ASU reduced proinflammatory cytokines, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, COX-2, and iNOS expression in LPS-activated chondrocytes to levels similar to nonactivated control levels.

* The suppression of COX-2 and iNOS expression was paralleled by a significant reduction in PGE(2) and nitrite, respectively.

Taken altogether, avocado processed a significant anti-inflammatory activity may be considered a functional food for the prevention of inflammatory disease and an adjunct therapy combined with the primary medicine for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases with no side effects.


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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

References
(1) Polyhydroxylated fatty alcohols derived from avocado suppress the inflammatory response and provide non-sunscreen protection against UV-induced damage in skin cells by Rosenblat G1, Meretski S, Segal J, Tarshis M, Schroeder A, Zanin-Zhorov A, Lion G, Ingber A, Hochberg M.(PubMed)
(2) Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 production in chondrocytes by avocado soybean unsaponifiables and epigallocatechin gallate by Heinecke LF1, Grzanna MW, Au AY, Mochal CA, Rashmir-Raven A, Frondoza CG.(PubMed)
(3) Avocado soybean unsaponifiables (ASU) suppress TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, COX-2, iNOS gene expression, and prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxide production in articular chondrocytes and monocyte/macrophages by Au RY1, Al-Talib TK, Au AY, Phan PV, Frondoza CG.(PubMed)
(4) Chronic Inflammation by Roma Pahwa; Ishwarlal Jialal. (NCBI)

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