Sunday, 9 December 2018

Cruciferous Vegetables in The Prevention and Treatment of Cancers

By Kyle J. Norton

Cruciferous vegetables may be the next pharmaceutical target to find the effective ingredients for the treatment of cancers, some scientists suggested.

Cancers are the class of medical condition caused by the irregular cell growth with the alternation of DNA.

Primary cancers are cancers that start at the original site. What causes the cells of the tissue or organs to become cancerous are unknown. Researchers do not know why people with the same health conditions, family history, and diet some are susceptible to the cell DNA alternation while most do not.

Genetic mutation inherited from the parents is one of the major risk factors have been found to some of the cancer patients. According to the statistic, gene mutations are associated with 7% of all cancer cases in the US.

By targeting the gene that initiates the onset of cancer and its specific dysregulated molecular pathways patients may have a higher chance to inhibit the growth and spread of a tumor.
However, most people who carry the cancerous gene do not know they have them. Dr. Jain Rin the study " The Relevance of Hereditary Cancer Risks to Precision Oncology: What Should Providers Consider When Conducting Tumor Genomic Profiling?" said, "Through tumor genomic profiling (TGP), existing and novel treatments can be selected to better target the specific dysregulated molecular pathways that drive growth and spread of a patient's tumor"

" Although the primary purpose of TGP is to detect targetable somatic mutations for treatment, TGP may also uncover germline mutations with important implications for patients and family members. Oncology care providers should be aware of the hereditary cancer risks associated with genes commonly tested by TGP.".

And, "Patients should be informed about the possible discovery of hereditary cancer risk information and the relevance of this information to their health and that of family members, and should have their preferences toward further evaluation of hereditary risk information that could be revealed by TGP documented in the medical record and followed".

Types of mutated gene facilitated the risk of cancer include BAG3, 10q26.11, BAG3 (Bcl- BLCAP, 20q11.23, BLCAP,...

Furthermore, unhealthy lifestyle choices also have a substantial effect on the increased risk of cancers.

"Seventy-one percent(71%) of lung cancer deaths are caused by tobacco use (lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death globally). The combined effects of tobacco use, low fruit and vegetable intake, urban air pollution, and indoor smoke from household use of solid fuels cause 76% of lung cancer deaths. Exposure to these behavioral and environmental factors is preventable; modifications in lifestyle could have a large impact in reducing the cancer burden worldwide (WHO, 2009)". Dr, Weiderpass E at the Karolinska Institutet, wrote in the study " Lifestyle and cancer risk"

Cruciferous vegetables are the group of vegetables belonging to the family Brassicaceae, including cauliflower, cabbage, cress, bok choy, broccoli etc.

Its chemical constituents include glucosinolates, dithiolthiones, indoles, glucoraphanin, s-methyl cysteine sulfoxide, isothiocyanates, indole-3-carbinol, etc..

In the study to evaluate the naturally occurring sulforaphane (SF) anti-cancer effects, researchers at the Roswell Park Cancer Institute launched an investigation to examine the SF isolated from cruciferous vegetables administered to rats orally either in a single dose or once daily for 7 days.

Application of SF exerts a significant effect in the stimulation fo the production of antioxidant enzymes GST and NQO1 varied by 3- to 6-fold among the organs of SF-treated rats.

Tissue uptake of SF was the greatest in the stomach, declining rapidly in the descending gastro-intestinal tract,

Particularly, tissue uptake level of SF in the bladder was second only to that in the stomach. Tissue levels of SF in the colon, prostate and several other organs were very low, compared to those in the bladder and stomach.

These results suggested according to the levels and organs uptakes and antioxidants enzymes produced during the course of the experiment, dietary SF, a potential chemopreventive benefit for the treatment of cancer.

Furthermore, in the searching for the effects of sulforaphane on cancer stem cells (CSCs), researchers launched a review of some medical literature found on the medical database.

Where CSCs are suggested to be responsible for initiating and maintaining cancer, and to contribute to recurrence and drug resistance.

A number of studies have indicated that sulforaphane may target CSCs in different types of cancer through modulation of NF-κB, a cellar apoptotic protein, SHH present in various human tumors. epithelial-mesenchymal transition, in the expression of tumor progression and malignant transformation and Wnt/β-catenin pathways in the cancer stem cells regeneration and organogenesis.

Dr. Li Y, the lead author at the final report said, "Combination therapy with sulforaphane and chemotherapy in preclinical settings has shown promising results".

The findings suggested that cruciferous vegetables processed a high level of sulforaphane (SF) may be considered a functional food for the prevention and combined with other primary therapy for the treatment of cancer, depending to the uptake organ's tissue and further large and multi-centre human studies.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)
ealth article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Organ-specific exposure and response to sulforaphane, a key chemopreventive ingredient in broccoli: implications for cancer prevention by Veeranki OL, Bhattacharya A, Marshall JR, Zhang Y.(PubMed)
(2) Targeting cancer stem cells with sulforaphane, a dietary component from broccoli and broccoli sprouts by Li Y, Zhang T.(PubMed)
(3) The Relevance of Hereditary Cancer Risks to Precision Oncology: What Should Providers Consider When Conducting Tumor Genomic Profiling? by Jain R1, Savage MJ1, Forman AD1, Mukherji R1, Hall MJ. (PubMed)

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