Monday, 17 December 2018

Cruciferous Vegetables, The Functional Food May Process Anti Bladder Cancer Potency

By Kyle J. Norton

Cruciferous vegetables may process a significant effect in the reducing risk and treatment of bladder cancer, some scientists suggested.

The bladder is a hollow elastic organ in the center of the lower abdomen that collects urine from the kidneys and excreted them through the urethra.

Bladder cancer is a medical and chronic condition caused by cell growth irregularly and disorderly in the bladder tissue as a result of cell DNA alternation.

Most cases of primary bladder cancer start on the surface of the inner lining of the bladder. At the cancer progress, the cancerous cell can penetrate deeper in the bladder tissue and travel a distance away to infect other healthy tissue and organs.

According to the statistic, men are 4 times more likely than women to be diagnosed with the disease. and 90% of people with bladder cancer are older than 55, and the average age people are diagnosed with bladder cancer is 73.

 Cancer causes 17,000 deaths (12,500 men and 4,500 women) every year.

Although there are many risk factors associated with the onset of bladder cancer, long-term cigarette smoking use is considered a significant cause of the disease. Smokers are 4 to 7 times more likely to develop bladder cancer than nonsmokers.

However, most of the cigarette smoker has never developed bladder cancer.

Dr. Neal D Freedman, the lead author in the concerns of bladder cancer widespread in men launched an investigation to evaluate the cigarette smoking in the risk of bladder cancer.

The study included a total of 81,394 men and 86,134 of women who complete the NIH-AARP cohort lifestyle questionnaire and followed from 1995 through Dec 31, 2006.

During 4,518,938 years of follow-up, incident bladder cancer occurred in 3,896 men (144.0/100,000 person-years) and 627 women (34.5/100,000 person-years).

Former smokers and current smokers were found to have higher risks of bladder cancer than never smokers.

The summary risk estimate for current smoking followed from 1963–1987) was 2.94.

The risk of bladder cancer of ever smoking in our study was 0.50 in men and 0.52  in women.

The findings not only suggested that the risk of bladder cancer not only increases in the current smoker but also elevates in previous smokers.

Cruciferous vegetables are the group of vegetables belonging to the family Brassicaceae, including cauliflower, cabbage, cress, bok choy, broccoli etc.

Its chemical constituents of cruciferous vegetables include glucosinolates, dithiolthiones, indoles, glucoraphanin, s-methyl cysteine sulfoxide, isothiocyanates, indole-3-carbinol, etc.

In the reaffirming the epidemiologic evidence suggests diets rich in cruciferous vegetables, particularly broccoli, are associated with lower bladder cancer risk, researchers at The Ohio State University conducted an evaluation to test the mechanisms whereby broccoli and broccoli sprout extracts and pure isothiocyanates inhibit normal, noninvasive (RT4), and invasive (J82, UMUC3) human urothelial cell viability. 

Sulforaphane (IC(50) = 5.66 ± 1.2 μM) and erucin (IC(50) = 8.79 ± 1.3 μM), the major compounds found in the broccoli and broccoli sprout are the most potent inhibitors without harming to the normal cells.

Further analysis suggested that the efficacy of the tested veggies are attributed to the inhibition of survivin, which plays an important role in the protection of cell death, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a growth factor receptor that induces cell differentiation and proliferation upon and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu) in the initiation of cancer development, G(2) /M cell cycle accumulation, and apoptosis.

In a murine UMUC3 xenograft model, injection of diets containing 4% broccoli sprouts, or 2% broccoli sprout isothiocyanate extract; or gavaged pure sulforaphane or erucin (each at 295 μmol/kg, similar to dietary exposure) showed a tumor weight reduction of 42%, 42%, 33% and 58%, respectively.

These results showed that broccoli and broccoli sprout has a strong effect in targeting bladder cancer prevention.

Moreover, in the reconfirmation of the effects of Sulforaphane (SF) inhibits bladder cancer in vivo, researchers at the Roswell Park Cancer Institute conducted an investigation SF effect in both human bladder cells in vitro and mouse bladder tissue in vivo.

Application of SF activates NF-E2 related factor-2 (Nrf2), which is a well-recognized chemopreventive target and activates the Nrf2-regulated cytoprotective signaling pathway in response to oxidative stress.

Comparison between wild-type mice and mice without Nrf2 shows that Nrf2 activation is required by SF for inhibition of Androgen-binding protein (ABP)-induced DNA damage.

Additionally, Nrf2 activation by SF in the bladder occurs primarily in the epithelium, which is the principal site of bladder cancer development. 

Accompanied with the result of SF-enriched broccoli sprout extracts strongly inhibits N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine-induced bladder cancer development, suggest that SF is a highly promising agent for bladder cancer prevention and provides a mechanistic insight into the repeated epidemiological observation that consumption of broccoli is inversely associated with bladder cancer risk and mortality.

Taken altogether, cruciferous vegetables, including broccoli and broccoli sprout processed high amounts of bioactive compounds may be considered functional for the prevention and an adjunct therapy combined with primary medicine for the treatment of bladder cancer.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Inhibition of bladder cancer by broccoli isothiocyanates sulforaphane and erucin: characterization, metabolism, and interconversion by Abbaoui B, Riedl KM, Ralston RA, Thomas-Ahner JM, Schwartz SJ, Clinton SK, Mortazavi A.(PubMed)
(2) Sulforaphane inhibits 4-aminobiphenyl-induced DNA damage in bladder cells and tissues by Ding Y, Paonessa JD, Randall KL, Argoti D, Chen L, Vouros P, Zhang Y.(PubMed)
(3) Association between smoking and risk of bladder cancer among men and women by Neal D Freedman, PhD, MPH,1 Debra T Silverman, ScD, ScM,1 Albert R Hollenbeck, PhD,2Arthur Schatzkin, MD, DrPH,1 and Christian C Abnet, PhD, MPH. (PMC)

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