Sunday, 16 December 2018

Phytochemical Allyl isothiocyanate, the Potential Anti Bladder Cancer Functional Remedy

By Kyle J. Norton, Master of Nutrition

Allyl isothiocyanate, a phytochemical found abundantly in the horseradish may have a strong effect in reducing risk and treatment of bladder cancer, some studies suggested.


Human bladder is a hollow elastic organ in the center of the lower abdomen that collects urine from the kidneys and excreted them through the urethra.

Bladder cancer is a medical condition characterized by irregular cell growth in the bladder tissue due to the alternation of DNA.

Most cases of primary bladder cancer start on the cell in the surface of the inner lining. However, after growing large enough, the cancerous call can spread to other regions in the body through the circulation of fluids and blood.

According to the statistic. 90% of bladder cancer were diagnosed in people who are older than 55. and the average age people are diagnosed with bladder cancer is 73.

Every year, the disease causes over 17,000 deaths and bladder cancer is the eighth most common cause of cancer death in men.

Out of the many causes of bladder cancer, researchers found that lifelong smoking, aging, and chronic bladder inflammation are some of the most common prevalent risk factors of bladder cancer cases found in the Western world.

Dr. Neal D Freedman, the lead author in the study "Association between smoking and risk of bladder cancer among men and women" clearly stated, "the population attributable risk of bladder cancer for tobacco smoking is 50–65% in men and 20–30% in women and that current cigarette smoking triples bladder cancer risk relative to never smoking".

" Over the last 30 years, incidence rates have remained stable in the United States (men: 123.8/100,000 person-years to 142.2/100,000 person-years; women: 32.5/100,000 person-years to 33.2/100,000 person-years)".

The study suggested if you quit smoking today, re\gardless of now many years that you have been smoking, your risk bladder cancer is reduced compared to those do not.

In chronic bladder inflammation patients, Dr. Michaud DS, in the review the relation among patients in Egypt with a chronic bladder infection and inflammation in the risk bladder cancer suggested inflammation is likely to have an important role in bladder carcinogenesis in developed countries probably associated with the genetic susceptibility to inflammatory pathways that cause persistent inflammation in damaging the cells in the bladder.

In some cases, the persistent inflammation can lead to the alternation of the cells DNA.

Allyl isothiocyanate is phytochemical containing sulfur in the class of organosulfur compound, found abundantly in horseradish, mustard, wasabi, etc.

In the study to reaffirm the effect of Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC)in the inhibition of the urinary bladder cancer growth and progression, researchers at the Department of Chemoprevention.launched
an investigation to examine the effect of the phytochemical used combination with the conventional medicine Celecoxib, a selective Cox-2 inhibitor against bladder cancer in the animal model.

Injection of the combination of AITC and celecoxib at low dose levels (AITC at 1 mg/kg and celecoxib at 10 mg/kg) in a syngeneic rat model of orthotopic bladder cancer showed to increased or perhaps synergistic inhibition of bladder cancer growth and muscle invasion, compared with each agent used alone.

Furthermore, the combination regime was also more effective than every single agent in inhibiting microvessel formation and stimulating microvessel maturation in the promotion of the growth of cancer in the tumor tissues.

The results of the efficacy of the combination was associated with the inhibition of the levels of prostaglandin E2 which not only plays an important role in the promotion of tumor growth but also is a  key downstream signaling molecule of Cox-2, caspase activation in the induction of cancer cell proliferation in solid tumors and downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor in facilitating the growth of new blood vessels to the tumor tissues.

Dr. the lead author said, at the final report said, "ITC and celecoxib complement each other for inhibition of bladder cancer and provide a novel combination approach for potential use for prevention or treatment of human bladder cancer".

Additionally, in the human bladder cancer UM-UC-3 cells or rat bladder cancer AY-27 cells injection of NAC-AITC at 15 μM results in significant inhibition of cell growth and proliferation, together with cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

Where AITC is excreted in urine mainly as N-acetyl-S-(N-allylthiocarbamoyl) cysteine, more commonly known as the N-acetylcysteine conjugate (NAC-AITC).

In an orthotopic rat bladder cancer model, NAC-AITC administered orally at 10 μmol/kg body wt inhibits cancer growth by 40% and muscle invasion by 49%.

The anticancer activity of NAC-AITC is associated with the modulation of several important molecular targets, including downregulation of both α-tubulin and β-tubulin which are correlated with increased tumorigenesis, tumor invasiveness, activation of caspase-3 in the promotion of cancer apoptosis and downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor in the establishment of new blood vessels for the bladder cancer to grow and proliferate..

These results are coincidently similar to those shown previously for AITC and are consistent with the understanding that NAC-AITC is a carrier of AITC.

After taking into account of all co and confounds and the result of the previous study, Dr.Bhattacharya A the lead author once again said, "comparison of the pharmacokinetic and physical properties of NAC-AITC with those of AITC suggests that NAC-AITC is superior to AITC for potential use for prevention and therapy of bladder cancer".

Taken altogether, Phytochemical Allyl isothiocyanate may be considered a functional phytochemical in the prevention of bladder cancer and combined with primary therapy for the treatment of bladder cancer, depending to the large and multi-center in the human study.


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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

References
1. Enhanced inhibition of urinary bladder cancer growth and muscle invasion by allyl isothiocyanate and celecoxib in combination by Bhattacharya A, Li Y, Shi Y, Zhang Y(PubMed)
(2) The principal urinary metabolite of allyl isothiocyanate, N-acetyl-S-(N-allylthiocarbamoyl)cysteine, inhibits the growth and muscle invasion of bladder cancer by Bhattacharya A, Li Y, Geng F, Munday R, Zhang Y.(PubMed)
(3) Association between smoking and risk of bladder cancer among men and women by Neal D Freedman, PhD, MPH,1 Debra T Silverman, ScD, ScM,1 Albert R Hollenbeck, PhD,2Arthur Schatzkin, MD, DrPH,1 and Christian C Abnet, PhD, MPH. (PMC)
(4) Chronic inflammation and bladder cancer by Michaud DS. (PubMed)

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