Thursday, 20 December 2018

Beet (Beta Vulgaris), the Potent Free Radicals Scavenger Functional Food

By Kyle J. Norton

Beet or beetroot may be considered a functional food in protecting the body against the onset of diseases caused by oxidative stress, some scientists suggested.

Oxidative stress in the result of the imbalance of the ratio of free radicals and antioxidants in the body.

In other words, it is caused either by overexpression of free radicals or depletion of antioxidant enzymes produced by the host body.

Free radical is an unstable molecule with the unpaired electrons in the outer ring formed when oxygen interacts with certain molecules. The highly reactive radicals once formed can start a chain reaction, like dominoes that may not stop until they are inhibited by antioxidant.

According to the free radical theory, organisms age and sick are associated with the accumulation of free radicals that cause damage to the cells over time.

An antioxidant is a stable molecule that inhibits oxidation.

Long-term expression of oxidative stress in the body can induce aging and chronic diseases.

Dr. the lead author in the concerns of overexpression of free radical in the risk aging and illness launched an investigation to examine the negative effect of ROS in the risk of the depletion of antioxidant defenses. 
The differentiation found that oxidative stress is involved in several age-related conditions (ie, cardiovascular diseases [CVDs], chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer). 

There is a significant association between oxLDL and higher arterial stiffness, independent of other traditional CVD risk factors and link atherosclerosis with oxidized LDL-cholesterol (oxLDL) as the compound mainly responsible for its production in elderly.

In diabetes mellitus (type 1 and 2), there is the association of increased formation of free radicals and decreased antioxidant potential, leading to macro- and microvascular complications.

And, oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the progression of CKD, through glomerular damage and renal ischemia and, indirectly, with inflammation, hypertension, and endothelial dysfunction.

All these results found in the differentiation suggested that by identifying different types of oxidative stress biomarkers in the facilitation of chronic illness may provide important information about the efficacy of the type of treatment, the guiding selection of the most effective drugs/dose regimens for patients. 


Beet is best known as the beetroot or garden beet and belong to the amaranth family. It is a perennial plant with leafy stems growing to 1–2 m tall.

The widespread of oxidative stress-related chronic diseases has been a burden to health care systems such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer and concerns of the many scientists.

Particularly, the medication used for the treatment of these diseases have been found to induce numbers of serious side effects.

Researchers at the Poznań University of Medical Sciences in the finding the natural ingredient which processes a potential for the treatment without inducing any adverse effects launched an evaluation to analyze the effect of beetroot juice against N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDEA)-induced liver injury.

In two hepatic cell lines: non-tumour THLE-2 and hepatoma-derived HepG2 cell lines, treatment of with 2, 10 and 20 μm of BET resulted in the translocation of Nrf2 from the cytosol to the nucleus., thus inhibiting the Nrf2 function  that regulates the expression of antioxidant proteins that protect against oxidative damage triggered by injury and inflammation.

These initiation caused by beet juice was application of accompanied by the phosphorylation of serine/threonine kinase (AKT) in the mediation of carcinogenesis, JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) in the regulation of that regulates the biological processes implicated in tumorigenesis, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the mediation of cancer cell stages of division.

Additionally, beet juice also increased the expression of antioxidant in the gastric cell lines through significantly increased the mRNA and protein levels of GSTP, GSTT, GSTM and NQO1, the groups of protein which play an important role in cellular protection against oxidative stress and toxic foreign chemicals, in these cells. 

Interestingly, BET did not modulate any of the other parameters measured in the HepG2 cells and did not change the methylation of GSTP1 in these cells either.

The finding led us to believe that BET through the activation of Nrf2 and subsequent induction of the expression of genes controlled by this factor may exert its hepatoprotective and anticarcinogenic effects.

In other words, BET increased the levels of antioxidants by reducing the oxidative stress triggered by injury and inflammation through protection of cell DNA against cancer initiation and liver against the expression of chemical toxins.

Taken altogether beet juice may be considered a functional liquid for the inhibition of oxidative stress and adjunct therapy for treatment of oxidative stress-related diseases, depending to the confirmation of large sample size and multi-center study in human


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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.


References
(1) What is NRF2?
(2) Betanin, a beetroot component, induces nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2-mediated expression of detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes in human liver cell lines by Krajka-Kuźniak V, Paluszczak J, Szaefer H, Baer-Dubowska W.(PubMed)

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