Thursday, 27 December 2018

Piperine, the Anti Hyperglycemic Plant Base Compound

By Kyle J. Norton

Bioactive piperine may have a strong and positive effect in reducing the risk and treatment of hyperglycemia in the management of type 2 diabetes, according to the studies.

Piperine is a phytochemical alkaloid in the class of organosulfur compound, found abundantly in white and black pepper, long pepper, etc.

Hyperglycemia is a condition of abnormally high blood sugar which is considered a hallmark sign of diabetes (both type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes) and prediabetes.

Hyperglycemia doesn't cause symptoms until glucose values are significantly elevated to the levels above 180 to 200 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 10 to 11 millimoles per liter (mmol/L). Most common symptoms of hyperglycemia include headaches, fatigue, blurred vision, hunger, confusion, and trouble with concentrating.

Diabetes is a chronic and medical condition caused by insufficient insulin entering the bloodstream to regulate the glucose.

The disease is either caused by cells in pancreas died off or receptor sites clogged up by fat and cholesterol.

According to the statistic, in the US, approximately 30.3 million Americans, or 9.4% of the population, had diabetes. Approximately 1.25 million American children and adults have type 1 diabetes In 2015.

The disease is on the rise at an alarming rate. Most cases of hypoglycemia are the results of a medical condition such as hypothyroidism, pancreatitis, long-term use of certain medication such as prednisone, estrogens, beta-blockers, glucagon, and stress.

Some researchers suggested that unhealthy lifestyle, in fact, is the major cause of the onset of hyperglycemia.

According to the study of a total of 485 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 501 subjects of Han Chinese ethnicity aged 40 years and older surveyed by a stratified cluster random sampling technique, the prevalence of hyperlipidemia was significantly lower among ethnic Bai Ku Yao than among ethnic Han individuals, which might mainly be attributed to the more favorable dietary patterns, lifestyle choices, and physical activity levels in the former ethnic group.

These results strongly suggested that an unhealthy diet high in saturated and trans fat, red meat and processed food and low fruits and vegetables are associated with the onset and early onset of hyperglycemia.

With an aim to find a natural ingredient or whole food for the prevention of diabetes, a metabolic disorder and emerging pandemic of the 21st century, researchers investigated the anti-diabetes activity of piperine, the chief alkaloid present in Piper nigrum (black pepper). The study included albino mice induced diabetes by injection of alloxan.

The tested mice were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 6). In acute study, drugs were administered orally as: control (2% gum acacia, 10 mL/kg), standard (metformin 150 mg/kg), P10 (piperine 10 mg/kg), P20 (piperine 20 mg/kg) and P40 (piperine 40 mg/kg) and drug intervention for subacute study consisted of once daily oral administration for 14 days of 2% gum acacia 10 mL/kg, metformin 250 mg/kg, and piperine 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, respectively.

By examing the blood glucose levels before and at 1, 2, 3 and 4 h post dosing, respectively, in the acute study and on day 7 and 14 in the subacute study, researchers showed that acute study showed that at 2 h post-dosing piperine at high dose of 40 mg/kg showed a significant rise in blood glucose level (p < 0.05) in comparison to control group.

Contrastly, significant blood glucose lowering effect was seen with piperine at a dose of 20 mg/kg on day 14 (p < 0.05) in the subacute study.

These results clearly suggested that subacute administration of piperine has a statistically significant antihyperglycemic activity while acutely it raises blood glucose at high doses.

In other words, in order for the piperine to exert antihyperglycemic activity, the initial dose should be reduced and increased gradually during the course of treatment. 

The G. Pulla Reddy College of Pharmacy in the evaluation of the associated among Piperine and P. longum is a known inhibitor of various enzymes (CYP isozymes) responsible for the biotransformation of drugs, suggested that by inhibiting the metabolism of drugs, piperine improves the bioavailability of drugs.

Truly, pretreatment of Piperine (10 mg/kg) accompanied by the anti-hyperglycemic activity of nateglinide (CAS no: 105816-04-4) exerted significantly increased the concentration of the drug. In other words, nateglinide is more effective in inhibiting hyperglycemia compared to the drug when it is applied alone.

Dr. Sama V, the lead author, after taking into account co and confounders said, "The synergistic anti-hyperglycemic activity of nateglinide when administered with piperine can be attributed to increased plasma concentration of nateglinide" and " The results of this study demonstrate that piperine could be used as a potential bioenhancer along with nateglinide".

In diabetes-induced oxidative stress in 30-day streptozotocin-induced diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats, piperine treatment intraperitoneally at the dose of 10 mg/kg/day for 14 days also reversed the diabetic effects caused by oxidative stress by improving the levels of antioxidant enzymes and inhibiting the levels of free radicals.

Taken altogether, piperine, a bioactive compound found in black pepper may be used for the prevention and treatment of abnormally high blood glucose in patients with diabetes, with no side effects

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) Evaluation of the effect of piperine per se on blood glucose level in alloxan-induced diabetic mice by Atal S, Agrawal RP, Vyas S, Phadnis P, Rai N.(PubMed)
(2) Effect of piperine on antihyperglycemic activity and pharmacokinetic profile of nateglinide by Sama V, Nadipelli M, Yenumula P, Bommineni MR, Mullangi R.(PubMed)
(3) Effects of piperine on antioxidant pathways in tissues from normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by Rauscher FM, Sanders RA, Watkins JB 3rd.(PubMed)

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