Tuesday, 4 December 2018

Herbal Cayenne, the Kitchen Spice May Have Potential for Prevention and Treatment of Breast Cancer

By Kyle J. Norton, Master of Nutrition

Scientists may have found a kitchen spice which processes a potential for reducing risk and treatment of breast cancer, some studies suggested.

Breast cancer has emerged recently as a most common cancer that affects one in eight women during their lifetime in the US. The malignantly mammary cancer is characterized by the cell growth disorderly and uncontrollably first in the surface of the breast inner linings either milk ducts (Ductal carcinoma) or the lobules (Lobular carcinoma).

However, there are rare cases that breast cancer starts in other areas of the breast.

 In 2010, over 250,000 new cases of breast cancer were expected to be diagnosed in women in the U.S.

Breast cancer diagnosed in the early was found to have 100% of the 5 years survival rate compared to stage II breast cancer of 93% and stage III breast cancers of 72%.

The exact causes of cells DNA in the breast tissue alternation are unknown. However, scientists do know that certain risk factors such as aging, family history, smoking, and dense breast tissue are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer.

Genetic mutation inherited from parents such as BRCA1 and BRCA2, tumor protein 53 or P53 and Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) accounts for 5-10 percent of all breast cancer diagnosed every year. 

However, inherited mutations that cause breast cancer are rare in the general population.

An unhealthy diet such as the Western diet with high in saturated and trans fat, red meat and processed food and less in fruits and vegetables is also associated with the increased risk of breast cancer.

Dr. Stoll BA, in the assessment of the Western diet, early puberty, and breast cancer risk, explained,
"Both earlier menarche and adult tallness are markers of increased risk to breast cancer. Earlier menarche in the West is usually associated with earlier onset of hyperinsulinemia, and multiple case-control studies report that hyperinsulinemia too is a marker of increased breast cancer risk. Although the Western diet is linked both to earlier menarche and also to earlier hyperinsulinemia, the mechanism involved is not necessarily the same".

In lifestyle aspects, Dr.Harvie M, the lead author at the University Hospital of South Manchester NHS Foundation Trust, said, "Recent expert reports estimate that successful lifestyle changes could prevent 25% to 30% of cases of breast cancer".

Cayenne is also known as Cayenne Pepper, a red, hot chili pepper, belonging to Capsicum annuum, the family Solanaceae, native to sub-tropical and tropical regions.

The herbal medicine has been used in traditional medicine to increases metabolism, enhance circulatory system and stomach and the intestinal tract, adjust blood pressure, lower LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, treat frostbite, muscles, arthritis, rheumatism, low back pain, strains, sprains, bruises, and neuralgia, etc.

In the study to reaffirm the effect of capsaicin as an anti-breast cancer agent, Dr. Dou D at the Wayne State University School of Medicine and Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Center, conducted an experiment to test whether capsaicin exhibits the growth arrest and apoptosis in human breast cancer cell lines.

Although there are conflicting reports with regard to the value of hot peppers and their primary active component compound, capsaicin, as an anticancer agent, however, in vitro, breast cell growth inhibition and cell death induction was positively correlated with the capsaicin content of the peppers.

In other words, the effect of capsaicin on breast cancer proliferation and expansion are totally depending on the concentration which facilitates the production of antioxidants in the inhibition of free radical expression.

In MCF-7 cells, capsaicin was found to inhibits the cancer cell growth and induces the cancer cells on the dose-dependent manner and through reducing the levels of reactive oxygen species.

The further analysis also found that treatment of capsaicin also increased the apoptosis-inducing factor translocated into the cytosol and nucleus from the mitochondria and probably involving the pathways of caspase-independent that program breast cancer cell death

Dr. Constantinou C explained, " These pathways (pathways of caspase-independent programmed cell death (CI-PCD))are likely to be acting as 'death backup systems' that ensure effective removal of defective cells from the organism. Similar to classical apoptosis i.e. caspase-dependent programmed cell death (CD-PCD)".

Taken altogether, herbal Cayenne with high amounts of bioactive capsaicin may be considered a functional food for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer and recurrence breast cancer.

Women with a higher risk of breast cancer may want to add a small portion of chili pepper into their diet for preventive measure.

However, due to the limitation of the above studies, additional data collection large example size and multi-centers studies performed with human consumption of the whole food or its bioactive compound emodin during the course of the disease will be necessary to complete the picture of herbal Cayenne, anti-breast cancer possibilities.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Tumor cell growth inhibition is correlated with levels of capsaicin present in hot peppers by Dou D, Ahmad A, Yang H, Sarkar FH. (PubMed)
(2) Caspase-independent pathways of programmed cell death: the unraveling of new targets of cancer therapy? by Constantinou C1, Papas KA, Constantinou AI. (PubMed)
(3) Dietary and Lifestyle Risk Factors for Colorectal Cancer in Apparently Healthy Adults in Jordanian Hospitals by Omran S1, Barakat H2, Muliira JK3, McMillan S. (PubMed)
(4) Can diet and lifestyle prevent breast cancer: what is the evidence? by Harvie M1, Howell A1, Evans DG. (PubMed)
(5) Capsaicin-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells through the caspase-independent pathway by Chou CC, Wu YC, Wang YF, Chou MJ, Kuo SJ, Chen DR.(PubMed)

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