Monday, 24 December 2018

Banana, the Natural Antibiotic and Anti Oxidative Stress Functional Food

By Kyle J. Norton

Banana may have a potential and substantial effect on balancing the levels of free radicals and antioxidants in the body, according to the studies.

Oxidative stress is a condition of imbalance of the ration of free radicals and antioxidant enzymes produced by the body, leading to the damage of cell, protein, and alternation of cell DNA.

The causes of oxidative are either associated with overexpression of free radicals and depressed the host antioxidant enzymes.

Free radicals are highly reactive molecules with the unpaired electron on the outer ring of the atom. In order for them to become balanced, they must donate or steal an electron from the stable molecules, leading to the chain of reaction which can not be stopped until the electrons on the outer ring are paired or inhibited by antioxidants.

This chain of domino's effect is known as oxidation.

Antioxidants are the stable molecules which inhibit oxidation.

There are 2 types of antioxidant in the human body. The antioxidants are produced by the host and antioxidant come from dietary sources.

Every day, our body is bombarded by the invasion of free radical. Believe or not, substances include fried foods, alcohol, tobacco smoke, pesticides, air pollutants, can produce harmful free radicals to our body.

Epidemiological studies agreed that oxidative stress is involved in several age-related conditions, including cardiovascular diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer.

Dr. Seungyoun Jung,, the lead scientists in the evaluation of a healthy diet pattern and the risk of oxidative stress suggested, "Foods rich in healthy diets—characterized by a high intake of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains as well as a low intake of saturated fat—are aggregate sources of bioactive compounds. These compounds work as components in antioxidant systems, such as superoxide dismutases or glutathione peroxidase, and may break free radical chain reactions."

These results strongly indicated a healthy diet can form a significant part in reducing the risk of diseases associated with oxidative stress.

Banana is the common name of a genus of tropical herbaceous plants. It can grow from 3 to 9 m and belongs to the family of the lily and the orchid.

On the finding a natural antioxidant ingredient or whole food for the prevention and treatment of the diseases associated with overexpression of free radical, researchers compared the antioxidant properties of banana (Musa paradisiaca) and Sapodilla/Chikoo (Manilkara zapota) peel extracts in chicken patties.

The chicken patties were assigned to 4 treatments viz., I. Control (meat + 2% salt), II.BHT (meat + 2% salt + 0.1% BHT), III. BPE (meat + 2% salt + 2% banana peel extract) and IV. SPE (meat + 2% salt + 2% sapodilla/chikoo peel extract).

By comparing the changes in color and lipid oxidation during 8 days refrigerated storage (4 ± °C) in 4 groups, researchers showed that
* The average phenolic content was 550.2 and 550.8 mg gallic acid equivalent per 10 g peel in BPE and SPE respectively.

* Free radical scavenging activity was 66.9 and 67.8% in BPE and SPE respectively.

* Banana peel extract had significantly (P < 0.05) higher reducing activity (1.6) as compared to sapodilla peel extract (0.91).

* Observation on lipid oxidation showed a significantly (P < 0.05) higher TBARS values used for the determination of oxidative stress in control than other three treatments.

* The increase in TBARS from the initial day of storage to last day of storage was highest in control (514.3%)compared to BHT (387.7%), BPE (370.6%) and SPE (383.7%). Both synthetic antioxidants and natural extracts significantly decreased the TBARS. 

These results clearly suggested that the water extracts obtained from banana and sapodilla peel process natural antioxidants in poultry meat and meat products.

Furthermore, in examining the antioxidant activity of different Musa sp. leave extracts of hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol, researchers found that 

* All the Musa sp. extracts showed moderate antibacterial activities expect Musa paradisiaca with the inhibition zone ranging from 8.0 to 18.6 mm. 

* Among four species ethyl acetate extracts of Musa paradisiaca showed the highest activity against tested pathogens particularly E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and Citrobacter sp.

* The minimum inhibitory concentrations were within the value of 15.63- 250 µg/mL and minimum bactericidal concentrations were ranging from 31.25- 250 µg/mL.

* Antioxidant activity of Musa acuminate exhibited maximum activity among other three Musa species.

Taken altogether, banana may be considered a functional for the prevention and treatment of bacterial infections and diseases associated with oxidative stress.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) Comparative antioxidant effect of BHT and water extracts of banana and sapodilla peels in raw poultry meat by Devatkal SK, Kumboj R, Paul D.(PubMed)
(2) Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Musa sp. leaf extracts against multidrug resistant clinical pathogens causing nosocomial infection by Karuppiah P1, Mustaffa M.(PubMed)
(3) Healthy Dietary Patterns and Oxidative Stress as Measured by Fluorescent Oxidation Products in Nurses’ Health Study by Seungyoun Jung,1,2,3,* Stephanie A. Smith-Warner,1,2 Walter C. Willett,1,2,4 Molin Wang,2Tianying Wu,5 Majken Jensen,2,4 Susan E. Hankinson,4,6 and A. Heather Eliassen. (PMC)

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