Friday, 7 December 2018

Phytochemical Dithiolthiones Protect the Liver Against Liver Toxicity

By Kyle J. Norton

Dithiolthiones, a bioactive plant-based compound found in many vegetables may have a strong implication in reducing the risk and treatment of liver diseases, some studies suggested.

Liver protection is an action, including the use of substances to protect the liver function against damage or injury.

There are many causes of liver diseases associated with a variety of factors including; viruses, toxins, genetics, alcohol, and unknown causes.

However, one the major cause of the liver diseases are toxins accumulation. Infectious viral hepatitis can produce toxins to protect them against the expression of antioxidant enzymes produced by the host body and prevent the attack of the systematic immune response.

And, long-term excessive alcohol drinking is generally known to cause the onset of alcoholic liver disease, the very early stage of liver cancer.

A study in the Brazil population to differentiation of the risk of liver diseases in a total of 57,380 DALYs (30.3 per 100,000 inhabitants) attributable to chronic hepatitis B and cirrhosis due to hepatitis B, with 41,262 DALYs in men showed, "Chronic viral hepatitis and liver cirrhosis are responsible for a significant burden in Brazil, affecting mainly men and individuals still in their productive years. The most burden is related to non-viral causes of cirrhosis, with a major contribution of alcohol".

Where disability-adjusted life year (DALY) is a sum of years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLL) and years lived with disability (YLD).

Liver toxins accumulated over the years of unhealthy diet with much in saturated and trans fat, red meat and processed foods and fewer in fruits and vegetables.

Dr. Mirmiran P, in the reaffirm the general belief, unhealthy diet plays a key role in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) said, "Intakes of red meat, fats, and sweets were high whereas consumption of whole grains, fruits and vegetables were less in NAFLD patients. Moreover, there was a positive association between the Western dietary pattern and the risk of NAFLD, while adherence to the Mediterranean diet was significantly associated with the severity of hepatic steatosis".

These results suggested that by changing the diet pattern by increasing intake more in fruits and vegetable and whole grain and reducing intake of the saturated and trans fat, red meat and processed foods accompanied by a healthy lifestyle, risk of liver diseases are decreased substantially.

Dithiolthiones are phytochemicals in the class of Organosulfides, found abundantly in cruciferous vegetables, garden sorrel, horseradish, etc.

The effect of drug anisyldithiolthione (ADT) was attributed to its major compound dithiolthiones, therefore application dithiolthiones directly may have the similar effect as of the drug anisyldithiolthione (ADT).

* Dithiolthiones inhibited the lipid peroxidation induced in rat liver microsomes either chemically by FeSO4 and reducing agents (cysteine or ascorbate)

* Dithiolthiones m also has a potency similar to those of propyl gallate and toxicity caused by the ethane exhalation by rats treated by CCI4 (ID50 approximately 5mg per kg).

The result suggested dithiolthiones exerted a potency in protecting the liver against toxic chemical injection and lipid peroxidation.

Futhermore, anisydithiolthione (ADT), when given orally 1 hour prior to acetaminophen (AAP) (450 mg/kg intraperitoneally) in Swiss female mice, also exhibited an hepatoprotective potency at doses as low as 10 mg/kg relative to serum aminotransferase activities and hepatic glutathione-related enzyme system (glutathione reductase, peroxidase, transferase).

These results indicated, dithiolthiones also protect the liver oxidative stress through stimulating the production of antioxidant enzymes in the tested mice.

Taken altogether, dithiolthiones may be considered a functional supplement for the protection of liver against substance and pathogens that cause liver diseases and an adjunct therapy combined with conventional medicine for the treatment of liver diseases.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) A new potent inhibitor of lipid peroxidation in vitro and in vivo, the hepatoprotective drug anisyldithiolthione by Mansuy D, Sassi A, Dansette PM, Plat M.(PubMed)
(2) Protective effect of anethol dithiolthione against acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in mice by Warnet JM1, Christen MO, Thevenin M, Biard D, Jacqueson A, Claude JR.(PubMed).
(3) Relationship between Diet and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Review Article by Mirmiran P1, Amirhamidi Z1, Ejtahed HS1, Bahadoran Z1, Azizi F. (PubMed)
(4) Burden of Chronic Viral Hepatitis and Liver Cirrhosis in Brazil - the Brazilian Global Burden of Disease Study by de Carvalho JR1, Villela-Nogueira CA2, Perez RM3, Portugal FB4, Flor LS5, Campos MR5, Schramm JMA. (PubMed)

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