Saturday, 22 December 2018

Celery, the Potential Anti Colon Cancer Functional Food

By Kyle J. Norton

Daily intake of a portion of celery may have a potential effect in reducing the risk and treatment of colon cancer, some scientists found.

The colon is also known as the large intestine.
Colon cancer is relatively very common and slowly growing and progress cancer and in a predictable way and is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in developed countries, including the US and Canada.

Colon cancer is a chronic and medical condition characterized by cell growth disorderly and uncontrollably in the colon tissue.

Most cases of colon cancer start in the cells on the surface of the inner lining of the colon. The stage of colon cancer is depended on how far the alternated cells have spread in the colon.

Patients with the early stage of colon cancer, may not experience any symptoms. But as the tumor spread and expanse, it may suppress the nearby tissue and nerve, causing symptoms of locally severe pain and discomforts.

Although there are many risk factors associated with the early onset of colon cancer, a poor diet high in saturated fat and trans fat, red meat and processed foods have been found to play a major role in the development and recurrence of colon cancer in the Western world.

Dr. Yun Zhu, the lead author in the study "Western Diet and Recurrence of Colon Cancer"Disease-free survival (DFS) among CRC patients was significantly worsened among patients with a highly processed meat dietary pattern (the highest vs the lowest quartile HR 1.82" and " The association between the processed meat pattern and DFS was restricted to patients diagnosed with colon cancer (the highest vs the lowest quartile: HR 2.29".

These results suggested that the Western diet not is associated with the development of colon cancer but also associated with a higher risk of tumor recurrence, metastasis, and death among patients with colon cancer.

Celery is a species of Apium graveolens, belonging to the family Apiaceae. It is cultivated all around the globe as a vegetable.

Celery can grow to 1/2 m tall with stalks (leaf on the top) arranging in a conical shape joined at a common base.

In the finding, the natural ingredient for the prevention and treatment of colon cancer without inducing side effects, researchers at the Hallym Univ investigate the major compound Luteolin, a 3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone isolated from celery in a tested cancer cell line.

Luteolin exerted a strong activity in mediated regulation of cell cycle progression and apoptosis in the HT-29 human colon cancer cell line.

Injection of luteolin decreased DNA synthesis and viable HT-29 cell numbers in a concentration-dependent manner.

Further analysis suggested that luteolin demonstrated cells cycle arrest at G1 phase by inhibiting cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)4 and CDK2 activity in the promotion of cell cycle division and a decrease of phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein which increases the function of retinoblastoma protein in tumor suppression.

These results are observed by the activities of CDK4 and CDK2 decreased within 2 h after luteolin treatment, with a 38% decrease in CDK2 activity (P < 0.05) observed in cells treated with 40 micromol/l luteolin.

Luteolin also promoted G2/M arrest at 24 h posttreatment by downregulating cyclin B1 expression, in the promotion of cancer cell proliferation and survival.

Luteolin also exhibited an apoptotic effect by increasing the function of proteins which are responsible for programming cells death.

Moreover, the chemical compound decreased expression of these key antiapoptotic proteins which could contribute to the increase in p53, a tumor suppressor-independent apoptosis observed in HT-29 cells.

Dr. Lim DY in the final report wrote, "luteolin promotes both cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in the HT-29 colon cancer cell line, providing insight about the mechanisms underlying its antitumorigenic activities".

Additionally, in the study conducted by the Harbin Medical College to assess the role of diet in the etiology of colorectal cancer included a total of 336 incident cases of histologically confirmed colorectal cancer (111 colon cancer and 225 rectal cancer) and an equal number of controls with other non-neoplastic diseases were interviewed in hospital wards.

After examining the average frequency of consumption and amount consumed of single food items obtained by a dietary history questionnaire researchers showed that vegetables, such as celery, have a strong protective effect against colorectal cancer compared to alcohol intake which was found to be an important risk factor for developing colon cancer.

More interestingly, perillyl alcohol, found in celery seeds, and several other plants, was found to be active to induce apoptosis in colon tumor cells without affecting normal cells and revert colon tumor cells back to a differentiated state.

Application of perillyl alcohol in animal models also increased the proteins which have the function in programming cell death and induced phase I and phase II detoxification systems.

Taken altogether, celery processed anti-colon cancer bioactive chemical compounds luteolin and perillyl alcohol may be considered a functional food for the prevention and a secondary therapy combined with primary medicine for the treatment of colon cancer.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HT-29 human colon cancer cells by the dietary compound luteolin by Lim do Y1, Jeong Y, Tyner AL, Park JH. (PubMed)
(3) Diet and cancer of the colon and rectum: a case-control study in China by Hu JF1, Liu YY, Yu YK, Zhao TZ, Liu SD, Wang QQ.(PubMed)
(4) Perillyl alcohol: applications in oncology by Belanger JT. (PubMed)
(5) Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer recurrence and survival: a cohort study by Yun Zhu,1,2 Hao Wu,1 Peizhong Peter Wang,1,2 Sevtap Savas,3,4 Jennifer Woodrow,1 Tyler Wish,3Rong Jin,5 Roger Green,3 Michael Woods,3 Barbara Roebothan,1 Sharon Buehler,1Elizabeth Dicks,6 John R Mclaughlin,7 Peter T Campbell,8 and Patrick S Parfrey. (PMC)

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