Wednesday, 12 December 2018

Phytochemical Indole-3-carbinol In the Prevention and Treatment of Breast cancer

By Kyle J. Norton

Indole-3-carbinol may be the pharmaceutical target in the searching of a chemo drug doe the treatment of breast cancer, some scientists suggested.

As a phytochemical in the class of Indoles, Indole-3-carbinol processes a unique function by the breaking down of the glucosinolate glucobrassicin found abundantly in cabbage, kale, Brussels sprouts, rutabaga, mustard greens, broccoli, etc.

Breast cancer is a medical and chronic condition caused by cell growth irregularly and uncontrollably in the breast tissue. At the early stage, most case breast cancer starts in the cells of the inner lining tissue of milk ducts (Ductal carcinoma) or the lobules (Lobular carcinoma) that supply the ducts with milk.

At the advanced stage, breast cancer cell caused by alternation of DNA can travel far the way from the primary site to infect other healthy tissue and organs.

Most patient at the early may have a lump when touching with no symptoms.

Patients who inherited the genetic preposition of BRCA1 and 2 are associated with over 60% of the risk of breast cancer.

However, an unhealthy diet and lifestyle are some of the preventable risk factors that form a major cause of the breast cancer onset.

Dr. Harvie M, the lead scientist on breast cancer program team at the University Hospital of South Manchester NHS Foundation Trust, said, " The World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and American Cancer Society (ACS) cancer prevention guidelines recommend maintaining a healthy weight, undertaking at least 150 minutes of moderate intensity exercise per week, limiting alcohol consumption, and eating a plant-based" and "Lifestyle factors appear to modify risk among high-risk women with a family history and those with typical risk of the general population".

In Post menopause, weight control is the major factor throughout life appears to prevent breast cancer after menopause.

Daily physical activity and reduced intake alcohol throughout life are associated with reduced risk of developing pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer, however, smoking during adolescence or early adulthood increases later risk of breast cancer.

Interestingly, in the depth discussion of the diet pattern in risk of breast cancer, researchers do not find the direct link to breast cancer risk.

These results suggested by actively following the healthy lifestyle and moderate exercise, risk of breast cancer can be decreased substantially.

The team on the final report said, "Recent expert reports estimate that successful lifestyle changes could prevent 25% to 30% of cases of breast cancer".

According to the statistic, in 2010, over 250,000 new cases of breast cancer were expected to be diagnosed in women in the U.S. alone and the risk of getting invasive breast cancer during the lifetime of women is 1/8.

Dr. the lead author in the research team of cancer program in the investigation to examine the effect of indole-3-carbinol cyclic tetrameric derivative (CTet) in breast cancer cell proliferation by endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy-related cell death induction conducted an experiment to evaluated the synergistic activity of CTet in combination with cisplatin and doxorubicin in triple-negative breast cancer cell lines.

In MDA included -MB-231 and BT-20 triple-negative breast cancer cells, CTet in combination with both cisplatin and doxorubicin synergistically inhibits cell viability and induces autophagy.

The efficacy of the CTet and combination exerted a strong anti-cancer effect as seen in the MAP1LC3B gene that is responsible for a normal physiological process in the body in dealing with the destruction of cells.
Pre-treated with cisplatin and doxorubicin demonstrated a strong cytotoxic activity of CTet in cells in the tested cancer cell lines.

The findings reaffirmed the potential of CTet as a chemopreventive agent or chemotherapeutic in combination with standard approaches for triple-negative breast cancer.

Furthermore, indole-3-carbinol cyclic tetrameric derivative CTet induces autophagy and inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation, researchers at the University of Urbino Carlo Bo conducted an investigation to examine the antitumoral activity of a mixture of tri- and tetrameric cyclic I3C derivatives (CTr/CTet) both in vitro (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines.

Observation of the application on the tested cancer cell line suggested CTr/CTet mixture inhibit breast cancer cell proliferation (IC50 = 1.3 and 1.6 μg/ml in MCF-7 and MDAMB- 231, respectively) inducing the G0/1 cell cycle phase accumulation.

The efficacy was attributed to the mixture in activating the overexpression of p21, p27 and GADD45A, which are the cell cycle regulators, nuclear translocation of FOXO3ain the induction of cell apoptosis and inhibition of Akt activity and downregulation of estrogen stimulating the cancer cell proliferation.

Moreover, n vivo, the tumor growth of xenotransplanted was also inhibited by reducing the function of Cyclin E and its low molecular weight that is important in the transition from G1 to S phase of the cell cycle that determines initiation of DNA duplication.

Taken altogether, Indole-3-carbinol processed apoptotic and antiproliferative activity can be considered a functional supplement for the prevention and combined with primary medicine for treatment of breast cancer.

However, further data collection large example size and multi-centers studies performed with human consumption of the phytochemical during the course of the disease will be necessary to complete the picture of Indole-3-carbinol anti-breast cancer possibilities.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) The Indole-3-carbinol cyclic tetrameric derivative CTet synergizes with cisplatin and doxorubicin in triple-negative breast cancer cell lines by De Santi M1, Galluzzi L, Duranti A, Magnani M, Brandi G.(PubMed)
(2) Antitumoral activity of indole-3-carbinol cyclic tri- and tetrameric derivatives mixture in human breast cancer cells: in vitro and in vivo studies by Brandi G1, Fraternale A, Lucarini S, Paiardini M, De Santi M, Cervasi B, Paoletti MF, Galluzzi L, Duranti A, Magnani M.(PubMed).
(3) Can diet and lifestyle prevent breast cancer: what is the evidence? by Harvie M1, Howell A1, Evans DG. (PubMed)

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