Thursday, 13 December 2018

Phytochemical Piperine, A Potent Anti Allergy Bioactive Ingredient, Researchers Say

By Kyle J. Norton

Scientists may have found a bioactive compound in the prevention and treatment of allergy with no side effects, according to studies.

Piperine is a phytochemical alkaloid in the class of organosulfur compound, found abundantly in white and black pepper, long pepper, etc.

Allergies are the result of the abnormally immune systematic response to typically harmless substances in the environment, leading to the symptoms and reaction in the nose, lungs, throat, sinuses, ears, lining of the stomach or on the skin.

Believe or not, the diseases associated with the hyperactivity of the immune system include hay fever, food allergies, atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma, and anaphylaxis.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Over 20 million Americans 18 and older and more than 6.1 million children were diagnosed with allergic rhinitis, commonly known as hay fever, in 2015. Another 20 million Americans were diagnosed with respiratory, food, or skin allergies.

In the comparison the allergic effect in the school today and the past, it often feels like food allergies are far more common today than in their youth, the incidence rarely happened in the past school days.

What contributes to the hyperactivity of the immune system in triggering the food allergy today compared to the past. No one knows.

However, researchers do know that certain risk factors including children, adults younger than 18 years old, family history of allergy and having asthma, particularly in people with a genetic preposition are associated to the onset of allergy.

Dr. Romina A. Ortiz, the lead scientist in the immunity team at the The Johns Hopkins Asthma & Allergy Center, said, " Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has been widely employed in the field of allergic disease, and to date significant associations have been published for nearly 100 asthma genes/loci, in addition to multiple genes/loci for AD, AR and IgE levels".

And, " Molecular genetics has undergone a technological revolution, leading to next-generation sequencing (NGS) strategies that are increasingly employed to hone in on the causal variants associated with allergic diseases".

These result clearly indicated that people inherited the mutated gene from the parent that causes over-reactivity of the immune system are at the increased risk of allergy

On finding a natural constituent or wholefood for the prevention and treatment of allergy with no side effect, researchers at the Kinki University investigated the anti-allergy effect of the extract of the Piper nigrum leaf.

The extracts at a different dose of 50, 200 and 500 mg/kg exerted a significant activity in inhibiting the cutaneous reaction at the early phase and later phase in dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) induced allergic mice.

Allergic effect of ear swelling also was inhibited by the PN-ext (50, 200 and 500 mg/kg, per os (p.o.)). But this effect on very late phase response (vLPR) in the model mice was significant but weaker than that on IPR.

At day 7, administration of PN-ext (50, 200 and 500 mg/kg for 7 d) completely inhibited picryl chloride (PC)-induced ear swelling in PC sensitized mice.

The results were attributed to the extract inhibitory effect on compound 48/80-induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells.

The in-depth analysis of the result suggested that 2 Two lignans of PN-ext, (-)-cubebin (1) and (-)-3,4-dimethoxy-3,4-desmethylenedioxycubebin (2), from the piperine found in the extract, were identified as major active principles having histamine release-inhibitory activity.

Additional evaluation of the piperine antiallergic effect, researchers launched a study of Balb/c mice to test the effect of piperine on airway hyperresponsiveness, pulmonary eosinophilic infiltration, various immune cell phenotypes.

The Balb/c mice were induced asthma by ovalbumin sensitization and inhalation. Piperine (4.5 and 2.25 mg/kg) was orally administered 5 times a week for 8 weeks.

Piperine-treated groups showed a strongly suppressed eosinophil infiltration, allergic airway inflammation, and airway hyperresponsiveness by inhibiting the proinflammatory cytokines and levels of immunoglobulin E and histamine.

In other words, the therapeutic mechanism by which piperine effectively treats asthma is based on a reduction of Th2 cytokines associated with the promotion of IgE and eosinophilic responses.

Taken altogether, piperine, a major bioactive compound found in black pepper may be used for the prevention and treatment of allergy caused by immune overreaction.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Histamine release inhibitory activity of Piper nigrum leaf by Hirata N, Naruto S, Inaba K, Itoh K, Tokunaga M, Iinuma M, Matsuda H.(PubMed)
(2) Piperine inhibits eosinophil infiltration and airway hyperresponsiveness by suppressing T cell activity and Th2 cytokine production in the ovalbumin-induced asthma model by Kim SH, Lee YC. (PubMed)
(3) Genetics of Allergic Diseases by Romina A. Ortiz, MS, and Kathleen C. Barnes, Ph.D. (PubMed)

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