Tuesday, 11 December 2018

Eggplant, Night Shape Veggie Which Processes the Potential for the Prevention and Treatment Type 2 Diabetes

By Kyle J. Norton

Eggplant, the night shape fruit or vegetable may have a strong effect in reducing risk and treatment of type 2 diabetes, some researchers suggested.

Type 2 diabetes is a condition caused by insufficient insulin entering the bloodstream to regulate glucose.

The condition of insulin resistance is either caused by cells in pancreas dying off or receptor sites clogged up by fat and cholesterol. 

According to the US statistic in 2015, approximately 30.3 million Americans, or 9.4% of the population, had diabetes. and 1.25 million American children and adults have type 1 diabetes.

Some researchers suggested that the widespread of type 2 diabetes in the US was associated with the promotion of the Western diet which has been found to complicate the risk of insulin receptor sites clogged up by fat and cholesterol, affecting the receptor in absorbing and releasing insulin from and to the body.

Dr. Merat S, the lead scientist in the study of a group of mice involved the Western diet risk of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia wrote, "The Western diet group had higher average glucose levels (187+/-16 versus 159+/-12 mg/dL) and 4.5-fold higher plasma insulin levels".and "the Western diets commonly used in LDLR-/- mice may not only induce atherosclerosis, but also IR, potentially complicating the interpretation of results".

These results firmly suggested long-term followers of the Western diet high in saturated and trans fat, red meat, processed foods and low in fruits and vegetables are the main culprits for the onset of insulin resistance, the early stage of type 2 diabetes.

Therefore, by the change to a healthy diet that reduces the intake of total fat (saturated fatty acids in particular) and increases intake of dietary fiber by consuming more vegetables and fruits and whole grain cereal products, diabetes is preventable.

Dr. Matti Uusitupa, MD, in the article of "Lifestyles Matter in the Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes" quoted, "In a Swedish uncontrolled study shown that an increase in physical activity and moderate weight loss reduced the incidence of type 2 diabetes by 50% in middle-aged men with IGT" and

"In a Chinese study of IGT patients, 6-year interventions with diet, physical activity, and diet plus physical activity resulted in an approximate 30–40% reduction in diabetes risk in both normal weight and overweight persons".

Eggplant is a species of S. melongena, belonging to the family Solanaceae and native to India, cultivated in southern and eastern Asia since prehistory.

The vegetable is famous with its deep purple and the best eggplant can be found from August through October when it is in the season. While it's generally thought of as a vegetable, eggplant is actually a fruit.

Chemical constituents
The vegetable chemical compounds containing include sterols (i.e. typical plant sterols, androstane, pregnane and cholestane derivatives, steroidal alkaloids, and sapogenins), phytosterols, triterpenes, δ-amyrin, Chlorogenic acid, Nasunin, and other Polyphenolic compounds.

In the concerns of the wide spread of type 2 diabetes among American, researchers launched an investigation to examine the National Diabetes Education Program of NIH, Mayo Clinic and American Diabetes Association recommendation of eggplant-based diet as a choice for management of type 2 diabetes.

Therecommendation is based on the rationale is the high fiber and low soluble carbohydrate content of eggplant. 

Application of phenolic-enriched extracts of eggplant showed a moderate free radical scavenging-linked antioxidant activity and high alpha-glucosidase inhibition by preventing the glucosidase in breaking down starch and disaccharides to glucose and moderate to high angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition activity in the prevention of β-cell dysfunction and apoptosis occurring in type 2diabetes.

By inhibiting these enzymes researchers suggested that intake of eggplant should provide a strong biochemical basis for management of type 2 diabetes by controlling glucose absorption.

Dr.Kwon YI, the lead author said, "phenolic antioxidant-enriched dietary strategy also has the potential to reduce hyperglycemia-induced pathogenesis linked to cellular oxidation stress".

Further analysis the phenolic antioxidant in the eggplant, researchers conducted an experiment on the member chlorogenic acids (CGAs) on chronic diseases including diabetes, by searching the database of online medical literature.

* The biological properties of CGA in addition to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects was found in some studies.

* CGA was found to exert pivotal roles on glucose and lipid metabolism regulation and on the related disorders, e.g. diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), obesity, cancer, and hepatic steatosis.

* CGA demonstrated a wide range of potential health benefits, including its anti-diabetic, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-obesity impacts, may provide a non-pharmacological and non-invasive approach.

Taken altogether, eggplant processed a high amount of phenolic compound may be considered a functional vegetable in the prevention of type 2 diabetes and an adjunct therapy combined with primary medicine for the treatment of the disease.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) In vitro studies of eggplant (Solanum melongena) phenolics as inhibitors of key enzymes relevant for type 2 diabetes and hypertension by Kwon YI1, Apostolidis E, Shetty K.(PubMed)
(2) in outlook on chlorogenic acids-occurrence, chemistry, technology, and biological activities by Upadhyay R1, Mohan Rao LJ.(PubMed)
(3) Western-type diets induce insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia in LDL receptor-deficient mice but do not increase aortic atherosclerosis compared with normoinsulinemic mice in which similar plasma cholesterol levels are achieved by a fructose-rich diet by Merat S1, Casanada F, Sutphin M, Palinski W, Reaven PD. (PubMed)
(4) Lifestyles Matter in the Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes by Matti Uusitupa, MD

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