Friday, 10 January 2014

Herbal Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and Anti microbial effects

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi is one of the species of Bearberry, in the genus Arctostaphylos, belonging to the family Ericaceae, native to the northern North America, Asia and Europe. The herb has been used in traditional medicine as diuretic agent and to treat urinary problems, including bladder infections, kidney infection, kidney stone, pelvic pain, etc.
The immune system is the set of cells and their activity against antigens or infectious agents that comprises of the body's defense system against diseases. The immune system does a great job of keeping people healthy and preventing infections. Beside foods and nutritional supplements, herbs also play a important role in helping the immune system defend against viruses and bacteria attacks.

The Ingredients
It contains arbutin, ursolic acid, tannic acid, gallic acid, some essential oil and resin, hydroquinones tannins,  phenolic glycosides and flavonoids.

The benefits
Arbutine from Arctostaphylos uva ursi has been found to be effective as non-antibiotic drugs in treating diseases induced by bacteria, caused by S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans. Also in the study of Extracts of Canadian first nations medicinal plants, including Arctostaphylos uva ursi (kinnikinnick or bearberry), inhibited the growth of all Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ng)  isolates with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 32 μg/mL, 4 to 32 μg/mL, 16 to >32 μg/mL, and 32 to 64 μg/mL, respectively. Other study on novel acylated caprylic alcohol glycosides (1, 2) produced by Arctostaphylos pumila, showed the exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with an MIC of 128 microg/mL and 64 microg/mL, respectively.

The Side effect
1. Overdoses may cause gastrointestinal discomfort, including cause nausea, vomiting, etc. and fever, chills, severe back pain, ringing in the ears, etc.
2. The herb may interact with other medicine, including diuretic
3. Do not use the herb in new born, children or if you are pregnant or breast feeding without approval from the related field specialist.
4. Etc.
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(1) Examination of antimicrobial activity of selected non-antibiotic drugs by Kruszewska H, Zareba T, Tyski S.(PubMed)
(2) Extracts of Canadian first nations medicinal plants, used as natural products, inhibit neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates with different antibiotic resistance profiles. by Cybulska P, Thakur SD, Foster BC, Scott IM, Leduc RI, Arnason JT, Dillon JA.(PubMed)
(3) Miniaturization of the structure elucidation of novel natural products--two trace antibacterial acylated caprylic alcohol glycosides from Arctostaphylos pumila by Hu JF, Yoo HD, Williams CT, Garo E, Cremin PA, Zeng L, Vervoort HC, Lee CM, Hart SM, Goering MG, O'Neil-Johnson M, Eldridge GR.(PubMed)