Wednesday, 8 January 2014

Herbal Andrographis and malaria

Andrographis paniculata is also known as Andrographis is a herbaceous plant, genus Andrographis, belonging to the family Acanthaceae, native to India and Sri Lanka. It has been used in traditional Siddha and Ayurvedic in treating the common cold, flu, upper respiratory infections, infectious diseases, diarrhea, dysentery, cholera, pneumonia, swollen lymph nodes, leprosy, bronchitis, sore throats, tuberculosis, chicken pox, etc.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease caused by parasitic protozoans.

The Ingredients
Beside the main ingredient andrographolides, giving the plant a bitter taste, other ingredients includediterpene lactones, such as: neoandrographolide, andrographiside, 14-doexy-11, 12-didehydro andrographolide, etc., flavonoinds viz., oroxylin, wogonin, andrographidines A, B, C, D, E, F.

The benefits
The crude extract of E. alba and A. paniculata was an excellent potential for controlling An. stephensi mosquitoes which caused malaria by exerting its mosquito adulticidal and repellent activities. In the study to compare the anti-malarial effect among sambiloto extract, chloroquine and artemisinin-only as well as those of their combination showed that the extract of sambiloto in a single dose or in a combination evidently has the effect of anti-falciparum malaria. Other study of the extract of Andrographis paniculata (AP) and Hedyotis corymbosa (HC) showed that a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of AP (7.2 microg/ml) was found better than HC (10.8 microg/ml). Combination of these two herbal drugs showed substantial enhancement in their anti-malarial activity.

The Side effects
1. Antifertility
Dry leaf powder of A. paniculata increases the risk accumulating of glycogen and cholesterol in the testis, and increased activities of lactate dehydrogenase in testis and alkaline phosphatase in testis and ventral prostate, thus reducing the risk of fertility.
 2. People with gallbladder disease may want to consult with their doctor before using because of the herb stimulating gallbladder contraction effect.

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(1) Antifertility effect of Andrographis paniculata (Nees) in male albino rat" by Akbarsha MA, Manivannan B, Hamid KS, Vijayan B., posted in (PubMed) (2) Comparative study of antimalarial effect of sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata) extract, chloroquine and artemisinin and their combination against plasmodium falciparum in-vitro by Zein U, Fitri LE, Saragih A.(PubMed)
(3) Anti-malarial activities of Andrographis paniculata and Hedyotis corymbosa extracts and their combination with curcumin by Mishra K, Dash AP, Swain BK, Dey N.(PubMed)
(4) Mosquito adulticidal and repellent activities of botanical extracts against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae) by Govindarajan M, Sivakumar R.(PubMed)