Thursday, 1 August 2019

Indicaxanthin Kills Colorectal Cancer Cells In Vitro

By Kyle J. Norton

The bowel formed a lower part of the digestive system consists of the small bowel (or small intestine) and the large bowel(colon and rectum).

The large bowel plays an essential role to absorb water, restore and remove waste.

Cancer is a class of medical condition caused alternation of cell DNA that starts on the surface of the inner lining of the tissue of a specific organ. Compared to a benign tumor, invasive tumor cells at the advanced stage can travel a distance away to infect other healthy tissue through blood and fluid circulation.

Colorectal Cancer is a medical condition caused by cell growth disorderly in the tissues of colon or rectum.

According to the statistics provided by the American Cancer Society in 2019, approximately
101,420 new cases of colon cancer and 44,180 new cases of rectal cancer will be diagnosed in the US.

Furthermore, the overall, lifetime risk colorectal cancer of developing is 1 in 22 (4.49%) for men and 1 in 24 (4.15%) for women.

Colorectal cancer is relatively very common and slowly growing and progressing cancer. It is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in developed countries, including the U.S. and Canada.

Most patients with colorectal cancer at the early stage are assymptomatic. However, at the advanced stage patients might experience symptoms of changes in bowel habits, narrow stools, constipation, diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, intermittent, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, diverticulosis, peptic ulcer disease, abdominal pain, accompanied by the general symptoms shared by other types of cancer.

Conventionally, treatment of colorectal cancer is totally depending on the stage of cancer, including localized(0), regional (1) and distance spread cancer (2 - nearby tissue, 3 - spread to the lymph node, 4, spread to organs and tissues)

Most common types of colorectal cancer are Adenocarcinomas which are originated in the surface of the inner layer that line the cavities and organs of the body.

The onion is a plant in the genus Allium, belonging to the family Alliaceae, a close relation of garlic. It is often called the "king of vegetables" because of its pungent taste and found in a large number of recipes and preparations spanning almost the totality of the world's cultures.

Depending on the variety, an onion can be sharp, spicy, tangy, pungent, mild or sweet.
Indicaxanthin is phytochemicals in the class of red and yellow indole-derived pigments of Betacyanins, belongings to the group of Betalains found abundantly in beets, chard, etc.

On finding a potent compound for the treatment of colorectal cancer, researchers examined the effect of the aqueous extract and of its betalain pigment indicaxanthin (Ind), on the proliferation of human colorectal cancer Caco-2 cells.

According to the tested assays, administration of whole extract and Ind exerted a strong activity to induce apoptosis and anti-proliferation at nutritionally relevant amounts, with IC50 400±25 mg fresh pulp equivalents/mL, and 115±15 μM (n=9), respectively at a dose-dependent manner.

More importantly, the inhibited of colorectal cancer cells by whole extract and Ind without causing toxicity for post-confluent differentiated cells.

In chemical analysis, Ind was found to account for ∼80% of the effect of the whole extract. Ind did cause oxidative stress in proliferating Caco-2 cells.

Furthermore, Ind was found to act as a de-methylation of the tumor suppressor p16(INK4a) gene promoter, in the activation of cell cycle arrest in the G2/M-phase in the tested cell line.

More precisely, Ind kills cancer cells by decreasing hyper-phosphorylated associated with cell cycle division and promoting hypo-phosphorylated associated with cell cycle arrest without alternating the cell division enzyme cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CD4).

Taken altogether, indicaxanthin may be considered a remedy for the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activity of whole extract and isolated indicaxanthin from Opuntia ficus-indica associated with re-activation of the onco-suppressor p16(INK4a) gene in human colorectal carcinoma (Caco-2) cells by Naselli F1, Tesoriere L1, Caradonna F1, Bellavia D1, Attanzio A1, Gentile C1, Livrea MA. (PubMed)

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