Wednesday, 28 August 2019

Bromelain Kills Leukemia Cancer Cells

By Kyle J. Norton

Leukemia is a medical and chronic condition that affects the blood and bone marrow associated with the production of immature white blood cells that can not function properly.

Leukemia can be classified into 2 types
A. Acute leukemia 
Acute leukemia is a condition of the rapid increase in the numbers of extreme immature white blood cells which appear in the bloodstream and other parts of the body, including tissue and organs.

* Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is a type of cancer caused by the abnormal growth of extreme immature lymphocytes by the bone marrow and/or lymphatic system. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common children forms of leukemia, accounting 80% of all cases.

* Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) is a cancer of myelogenous lining caused by the rapid growth of abnormal granulocytes accumulated in the bone marrow, interfering with the normal the blood cells.

B. Chronic leukemia
Chronic leukemia is a condition of the slow but still excessive build up of relatively mature abnormal white blood cells.

* Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a condition caused by slow growth and spreading of a group of abnormal white blood cells called B-cell lymphocytes, which fight against infection in our body by produced antibodies.

* Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a condition caused by slow growth and spreading of abnormal granulocytes.

The exact causes of leukemia are unidentified. Researchers do not know the exact factors that cause the alternation of cell DNA that promotes the abnormal growth of white blood cells.

However, they do know aging, family factors, male, smoking, long-term exposure to certain chemicals, chemo and radiation therapies, genetic proposition and certain types of blood disorder are associated with the increased risk of the disease.

Leukemia shared all general symptoms with other types of cancer such as unintended weight loss, loss of appetite, gastrointestinal discomforts and persistent fatigue accompanied by specific symptoms of bleeding or bruising, recurrent nosebleeds, tiny red spots in your skin, excessive sweating, and hight time bone pain or tenderness.

Bromelain, a proteolytic enzyme found in pineapples (Ananas comosus) has been used in traditional medicine as an inflammatory agent and to treat pains, strains, and muscle aches and pains and ease back pain and chronic joint pain, skin diseases, etc.

With an aim to discover a potential compound or whole food for the treatment of leukemia, researchers investigated a panel of cancer cell lines with bromelain in the presence or absence of peroxidase.

Bromelain combined with peroxidase (BM-PR) showed significant inhibition of acute myeloid (K562) cell proliferation and altered the morphological features.

The combination not only exhibited pro apoptosis against the cancer cell line but also interfered with the cell cycle division through cell cycle arrest.

BM-PR also increased the expression of intracellular ROS level in the induction of cytotoxicity and altered the mitochondrial membrane potential, against the tested cancer cells.

According to the Western blot analysis, BM-PR increased the levels of proteins associated with the activity of proapoptosis and tumor suppression.

Compared to the treatment of bromelain, researchers said, "These results suggest that BM-PR from pineapple induces apoptosis better than the only bromelain in acute myeloid leukemia cells possibly via mitochondria-dependent pathway".

In CD44 cell surface proteins involved in leukocyte binding to endothelium and the metastatic spread of tumor cells, injection of bromelain inhibited the human leukemia Molt 4/8 cells growth by reducing CD44 receptor density.

The most active in reducing CD44 receptor density of bromelain was a half-maximal value of 1.9 mu g/ml and 2.3 mu g/ml.

Based on the findings, bromelain inhibited the progression of leukemia via the reduced CD44 receptor density. 

Taken altogether, bromelain used alone or combined with other herbal medicines may be considered supplements for the prevention and treatment of leukemia, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.

Intake of bromelain in the form of supplement should be taken with extreme care to prevent overdose acute liver toxicity.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Bromelain with peroxidase from pineapple are more potent to target leukemiagrowth inhibition - A comparison with only bromelain by Debnath R1, Chatterjee N2, Das S3, Mishra S4, Bose D4, Banerjee S4, Das S4, Saha KD5, Ghosh D6, Maiti D. (PubMed)
(2) Bromelain proteinases modulate the cd44 expression on human molt-4/8 leukemiaand sk-mel-28 melanoma-cells in-vitro by Harrach T1, Gebauer F, Eckert K, Kunze R, Maurer H. (PubMed)

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