Sunday, 25 August 2019

Antioxidants Lycopene In reducing Risk of Rectal Cancer in Women

By Kyle J. Norton

Cancer is a group of chronic and medical associated with abnormal cell growth in a specific tissue of an organ, due to the alternation of DNA.

A primary tumor or original tumor is a tumor first arose and progression to yield a cancerous mass.

Cancer cells that grow to its tumor size, can invade and kill their neighbor cells by producing abnormal or excessive signaling chemicals (hormones or cytokines) which upset the normal chemical balance and alter the metabolic pathways, leading to disordered and violent cellular behavior.

 At the early stage, due to the small size of the tumor, most patients are asymptomatic.

Rectum formed part of the colon acts as a temporary storage site for feces, before eliminating them as feces.

Rectal cancer is a malignant tumor that starts from the cells on the surface of the inner lining of the tissues of the rectum.

Most common symptoms of rectum cancer are a change in your bowel habits, such as diarrhea, constipation or more frequent bowel movements, dark or red blood in the stool, mucus in stool, abdominal pain and painful bowel movements accompanied by the general symptoms found in other types of cancer.

The exact causes of rectum cancer are unidentified. However, rectum cancer shares the similar risk of factors of colorectal cancer, including the increase of age, family and personal history, unhealthy diets such as red meat and processed foods, physical inactivity, overweight or obesity, alcohol, and smoking.

Some researchers suggested that the promotion of a high-fat diet over the past few decades may be correlated to the increased risk of rectum cancer.

Dr. Teresa T. Fung, the lead scientist said, "Results from investigations using a priori dietary patterns (i.e., diet quality scores) and a posteriori methods, which identify existing eating patterns (i.e., principal component analysis), continue to support the benefits of a plant-based diet with some dairy as a means to lower the risk of colorectal cancer, whereas a diet high in meats, refined grains, and added sugar appears to increase risk".

Lycopene is a phytochemical found in tomato in the class of carotenoid, a natural pigment with no vitamin A activity found abundantly in tomatoes and other red fruits and vegetables, such as red carrots, watermelons, and papayas,

Tomatoes provide about 80% of the lycopene in the world diet. In plants, lycopene protects the host against excessive photodamage and perform various functions in photosynthesis.

On finding a potential compound for the treatment of rectal cancer, researchers examined the role of lycopene as a chemopreventive agent.

The study included 952 rectal cancer cases and 1,205 controls of a population-based case-control study from Northern California and Utah conducted between September 1997 and February 2002.

According to the returned questionnaires based on the detailed diet history, medical history, and lifestyle factors, 
* For women, the relative to the highest level of intake, low intake of dietary lycopene suggested that lycopene is associated with a reduced risk of rectal cancer with the odds ratio (OR) = 1.7. In other words, the risk of rectal cancer decreased depending linearly to the amount of dietary lycopene intake daily and regularly.

* Dietary antioxidants including lycopene were not associated with rectal cancer risk in men.

* Compared to lycopene dietary alpha-, beta-, and gamma-tocopherol were associated with an approximately two-fold increased risk of rectal cancer in women.

More precisely, not all members work synergistically to a reduced risk of rectal cancer.

Based on the findings, researchers wrote, "Associations differed by estrogen status for beta-carotene, lycopene, and vitamin E. These results suggest that ... lycopene may modestly reduce the risk of rectal cancer in women".

Taken altogether, lycopene found in tomato may be considered supplements for the prevention and treatment of rectal cancer in women, pending on the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.

Intake of lycopene in the form of supplement should be taken with extreme care to prevent overdose acute liver toxicity.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Antioxidants, carotenoids, and risk of rectal cancer by Murtaugh MA1, Ma KN, Benson J, Curtin K, Caan B, Slattery ML. (PubMed)
(2) Plasma and dietary carotenoids and vitamins A, C and E and risk of colon and rectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition by Leenders M1, Leufkens AM, Siersema PD, van Duijnhoven FJ, Vrieling A, Hulshof PJ, van Gils CH, Overvad K, Roswall N, Kyrø C, Boutron-Ruault MC, Fagerhazzi G, Cadeau C, Kühn T, Johnson T, Boeing H, Aleksandrova K, Trichopoulou A, Klinaki E, Androulidaki A, Palli D, Grioni S, Sacerdote C, Tumino R, Panico S, Bakker MF, Skeie G, Weiderpass E, Jakszyn P, Barricarte A, María Huerta J, Molina-Montes E, Argüelles M, Johansson I, Ljuslinder I, Key TJ, Bradbury KE, Khaw KT, Wareham NJ, Ferrari P, Duarte-Salles T, Jenab M, Gunter MJ, Vergnaud AC, Wark PA, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB. (PubMed)
(3) Dietary Patterns and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer by Teresa T. Fung and Lisa S. Brown. (PMC)

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